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RECLAMATION MEASURES FOR GULLY EROSION SITES A CASE STUDY OF OBOLLO-ETITI, UDENU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE
The incidence of gully erosion in Obollo-Etiti in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State has assumed alarming proportions thereby gaining local government recongnition as an ecological disaster.
The aim of this study is therefore to determine and analysis the factors responsible for gully development and with preferring solutions. From my observation, the gully erosion for more than three to four years has been responsible for the loss of farmland, damage of roads, thereby rendering them farmless for varying period of time and loss of livestock which majority of the population depends on for survival.
Congruently, the community have been working on it and even employing indigenous management strategies. However not much progress has been recorded with regard to combating the manace as both community and government carryout intervention measure almost exclusive of each other, with the information gotten is therefore recommends among other things that the management strategies of local government should be harmonized with that of the community with regard for the unique environment and social feature of the study area.
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Justification of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of Gully Erosion
2.2 Classification of gully
2.3 Causes of gully erosion
2.4 Process of gully formation
2.5 Gully reclamation techniques
3.1 Study Area
3.2 Topographic Survey
3.3 Determination of Soil Properties
3.3.1 Grain size distribution
3.3.2 Atterberg limit test (liquid limit determination)
3.3.3. Specific gravity determination
3.3.4 Permeability determination
3.3.5 Direct shear test determination
3.3.6 Dry and bulk densities determination
3.4 Hydrological analysis
3.4.1 Mean annual Rainfall
3.4.2 Intensity duration curve
3.4.3 Run-off determination
3.4.4 Time of Concentration (TC)
3.5 Selection and design of appropriate control
3.5.1 Design of Trapezoidal channel
3.5.2 Design of drop structure
3.5.3 Design of discharge outlet structure
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.0 RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
1.1 Background of the Study
Disaster have been defined and categorized in diverse by various scholars see for instance, Bates (2002). Hugo (2009), Naik (2009) and Keane (2004). Disaster which may occur from natural or man-made processes often involve large scale alternations of the areas they occurs and suffering of a sizeable number of persons. Human responses to disaster vary according to the nature of the disaster.
Advances in science and technology have aided the human race to stop the events, to predict the events and more out of the ways such disasters or discover ways of recovery after the events had taken place. However, some notable disaster which when they occur, death and loss of property usually result include, gas escapes earthquake, chemical spill oil, oil spills, forest fires, coastal floods generally etc. landslide, causes of loss property death and population displacement when they occur in densely-settled area of the world s within Nigeria landslides occur as follows ups from deep gully incision (Mozie 2010). The most devastating gully erosion in Nigeria are found in South Easter Nigeria in the populated Enugu, Abia, Imo and Anambra State and other lesser area is in Auchi in Edo State of Nigeria.
This project discusses the gully erosion control in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria.
1.2 Objectives of the Study
To determine the cause of the gully erosion in the Obollo-Etiti, Udenu L.G.A. gully site.
To construct maintain and unrest in the study are unfrustural works like roads, water schemes and gradual transfer of these to benefiting communities to engage in other activities that will increase agricultural production in the soil.
To design appropriate soil erosion control structures for gully erosion site.
1.3 Justification of the Study
The justification of this project work is seen in the aftermath of the gully development, which includes the destruction of the profile and the topography of the area, thereby hindering development around it. The downstream sedimentation is causing damage to the vegetation of area and a kind of sediment transfer to discharge outlet (which may cause pollution) is being seen effected by the overland flow that originates from the watershed. All these problems will be tackled when this work is successfully completed. The justification of this project work is also seen in the earnestness of the control. This is because the cost of reclamation and control is increasing on daily basis due to the continuous deepening of the gully by run off action and detachment by rain drop action.
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