INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT IN ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN NIGERIA
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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) DEPLOYMENT IN ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT 

Architectural practice has been in existence in Nigeria for more than fifty years and the earliest introduction of computers by firms  for  operations began in the early 1980s. Information and communication technology (ICT)  usage is inevitable in all fields  of endeavours and for professionals in the present era. The study of ICT usage and deployment therefore becomes imperative. This study aims at providing an understanding of the deployment of  ICT in architectural firms in Nigeria. It specifically examines organizational and ICT characteristics of the firms; the measure of fit between ICT tools deployed and tasks engaged; the effect of training programmes on  the availability of  ICT proficient personnel; and  the level of acceptance of Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) in architectural firms in Nigeria. The Task-Technology Fit model (TTF) and an Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) were  employed to test deployment of four design technologies (AutoCAD, ArchiCAD, Revit Architecture and SketchUp) and the acceptance of CSCW. The multistage sampling technique was used to derive the sample drawn from six cities: Abuja, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Enugu, Lagos and Portharcourt were selected  based on documented evidence of having the largest number of firms in their zones. A  total of 118 questionnaires were returned from a total of 159 distributed. This represents a 74.21% return rate. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, crosstabulations, Chi-Square tests, exploratory factor analysis,  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)  and multiple regression analysis. The study revealed  improvements in the quality and availability of ICT systems in architectural firms in Nigeria as from 2001.  Internet connectivity and Website ownership is on the increase in architectural firms. Annual turnover of the architectural firms has is positively correlated to  the quality of installed systems. The study also found a relationship between ownership of websites and the date of ICT introduction. The integrated TTF/TAM test showed levels of fit between tasks engaged in architectural firms and the design technologies deployed. The model tests explain between  41.4%  -  52.1% of the residual variation in the production of detailed system product. The  coefficients of determination  and beta  coefficients  are significant to predict  model  fit  of  deployment. 
Reasonable proficiency levels of the staff in the deployment of the available software and technologies were confirmed. Furthermore firms are getting increasingly involved in outsourcing as a service delivery strategy. The study revealed that few firms fund training programmes within their organizations. Most of those that fund training programs commit lower than a million naira to it annually. The study revealed that there is no  significant relationship  between the availability of CAD/BIM proficient staff and the existence of training programmes within the firms. It was also confirmed that there was no  significant relationship between the availability of CAD/BIM proficient staff  and the training methods employed by the firms. It was found that there was a  significant  relationship  between the availability of CAD/BIM proficient staff and the CAD/BIM proficient staff needed.  The interview responses suggest that the schools of architecture have done much towards achieving  the availability of CAD/BIM proficient staff. CSCW has been adopted by only 37.3% of the firms and the study revealed that perceived ease-of-use, security and the quality of installed systems were predictors of the extended TAM model.  In conclusion, the study recommends  that concerted efforts towards developing network infrastructure especially broadband access can  improve the practice of outsourcing and also have impact on CSCW. 
Quality investment and commitment by technology companies and vendors, firms, the government and other stakeholders in the area of ICT acquisitions, network security and the development of user-friendly technologies will surely improve adoption and deployment of ICT in architectural firms in Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Title Page    ...........................................................................................................i 
Declaration    ..........................................................................................................ii 
Certification    .........................................................................................................iii 
Dedication    .........................................................................................................iv 
Acknowledgements   ..........................................................................................................v 
Abstract    ..........................................................................................................vi 
Table of Contents  ..........................................................................................................vii 
List of Tables    ..........................................................................................................xiii 
List of Figures    ..........................................................................................................xv 
List of Plates    ..........................................................................................................xvii 
 
Chapter One: Introduction 
1.1  Background to the Study............................................................................................1 
1.2  Statement of the Problem............................................................................................3 
1.3  Aim and Objectives ....................................................................................................5 
1.4  Research Hypothesis ..................................................................................................5 
1.5  Justification of the Research ......................................................................................6 
1.6  Research Design..........................................................................................................7 
1.7  Scope of Study ...........................................................................................................8 
1.8  Limitation of Study.....................................................................................................8 
1.9  Key Definitions and Concepts....................................................................................9 
1.10  Summary ....................................................................................................................11 
 
Chapter Two: Review of Literature 
 
2.1  Introduction ...............................................................................................................12 
2.2  Architecture and the Architect...................................................................................12 
2.3  Scope of Architectural services .................................................................................14 
  2.3.1  Scope of Services ...............................................................................p; 2.3.2  Normal Architectural Service: The Three Stages ..........................................15 
2.4  Architectural Practice in Nigeria ................................................................................16 
  2.4.1  Architecture and Regulatory Institutions in Nigeria ......................................18 
2.5  Historical Account from CAD to BIM .......................................................................19 
2.5.1  The Advent and Development of the Computer .............................................19 
  2.5.2  Evolution and Development of CAD, CAAD and Graphic Packages.............20 
  2.5.3  Evolution of Communication Systems............................................................22 
2.6  The Real and the Virtual .............................................................................................23  
2.7  ICT Applications in Architectural Firms ....................................................................24 
  2.7.1   Areas of Applications of ICT in Architectural Firms.......................................24 
2.8  ICT Adoption and Deployment ...................................................................................25 
  2.8.1  General Administrative Application ...............................................................26 
  2.8.2  Core Architectural Applications ......................................................................27 
  2.8.3   Computer Aided Design (2D and 3D CAD) ..................................................27 
  2.8.4   CAAD as Distinct from CAD ........................................................................30 
  2.8.5   Digital Object Library (DOL) ........................................................................30
  2.8.6   Design and Virtual Modelling ........................................................................30 
  2.8.7   Animations and Simulations ..........................................................................32 
2.8.8  5D Modelling...................................................................................................32 
2.9  BIM and Its Significance to Architectural services......................................................33 
2.9.1  Challenges of BIM Solutions...........................................................................34 
2.10  Web-Based Deployment..............................................................................................35 
2.11  Human Resource for CAD, CAAD and BIM..............................................................38 
  2.11.1  Outsourcing......................................................................................................40 
  2.11.2  Training............................................................................................................42 
2.12  Hardware and System Requirements...........................................................................44 
2.13  Challenges of ICT Deployment in Nigerian Firms......................................................45 
  2.13.1 Security.............................................................................................................46 
  2.13.2  Availability......................................................................................................47 
  2.13.3  Accessibility....................................................................................................48 
  2.13.4  Affordability...................................................................................................48 
2.14  Productivity Gains from ICT Deployment..................................................................49 
2.15  Summary of Chapter....................................................................................................50 
 
Chapter Three: Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 
 
3.1  Introduction .............................................................................................................52 
3.2  Research Approaches and perspectives in the Study of ICT in Organizations.........52  
3.2.1  The positivist Perspective.............................................................................52 
3.2.2  The Interpretive Perspective.........................................................................54 
3.2.3  The Critical Perspective................................................................................54 
3.3  Theoretical Framework for the Study  ......................................................................55 
3.4  Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)....................................................................55  
3.5  Task-Technology Fit (TTF) Model..........................................................................57 
3.6  Summary of Chapter.................................................................................................60

Chapter Four: Research Methodoloour: Research Methodology  
4.1  Introduction...............................................................................................................61 
4.2  Research Design........................................................................................................61 
4.3  Research Population..................................................................................................62 
4.4  Subjects.....................................................................................................................62 
4.5  The Sampling Frame.................................................................................................62 
4.6  Sampling Technique..................................................................................................65 
4.7  Sample Size ..............................................................................................................66 
4.8  Pilot Study.................................................................................................................69 
4.9  Method of Data Collection.........................................................................................69 
  4.9.1 Questionnaire/Interview Design.......................................................................70 
  4.9.2 Data Collection and Treatment.........................................................................70 
  4.9.3 Field Work Details............................................................................................77 
4.11  Summary ...................................................................................................................78 
 
Chapter Five: Organization and Information and Communication Technology 
Characteristics of Architectural Firms
 
5.1  Introduction...............................................................................................................80 
5.2  Period of Establishment of Firms...............................................................................80 
5.3  Date of ICT Introduction...........................................................................................81 
5.4  Number of Branches Operated...................................................................................82 
5.5  Annual Turnover of Firms..........................................................................................83 
5.6  ICT Characteristics of Architectural Firms................................................................85 
  5.6.1 Availability of Websites....................................................................................85 
  5.6.2 Number of Available Workstations...................................................................86 
  5.6.3 Quality of Installed Systems..............................................................................87 
  5.6.4 Operating System Used......................................................................................87 
  5.6.5 Availability of Internet Connectivity..................................................................88 
  5.6.6 Forms of Internet Connectivity...........................................................................89 
  5.6.7 Internet Service Providers (ISP)..........................................................................89 
  5.6.8 Mode of Connectivity Deployed.........................................................................90 
5.7  Annual Turnover and Quality of Installed Systems.....................................................91
5.8  Website Availability and Date of ICT Introduction.....................................................94 
5.9  Implications of Findings...............................................................................................94 
5.10  Summary......................................................................................................................95 

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