PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.
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Preliminary Investigation On Effects Of Burantashi Extract On Liver Enzymes Of Aibino Male And Female Whistar Rats.

 

ABSTRACT 

This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (suya) in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd) International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase -5- Inhibitors (PDE-5) used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.
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LIST OF FIGURES
1. Anatomy of the Penis
2. The Penis Vacuum Device
3. The Penis Prosthesis
4. The Anterior view of the Human Liver
5. The Interior view of the Human Liver
6. The Superior View of the Human Liver
7. Liver Lobules
8. Chart Showing Blood and Bile Flow Through the Liver
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LIST OF TABLES
1. Extract Yield of Ethanol Extract and Aqueous Extract.
2. Phytochemical Properties of Extract
3. Effect of Extracts in Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transferase (SGOT) Activity of Whistar Rats
4. Effect of Extract on Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) Activity of Whistar Rats
5. Effect of Extracts On Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activity of Whistar Rats
6. Effect of Extracts on Plasma Glutathione S-Transferase Activity (iu/L) of Whistar Rats
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
List of Tables vi
List Figures vii
Table of Content viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Physiology of Erection 1
1.2 Hormonal Involvement In Erection 2
1.3 Mechanism of Action of PDE. 5 Inhibition In erectile Dysfunction 3
1.4 Nitric Oxide Regulation of Penile Erection 6
1.5 Atieology of Erectile Dysfunction 8
1.6 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 9
1.7 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Females 10
1.8 Aim of Study 11
CHAPTER TWO
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2.0 Literature Review 12
2.1 Literature Review on Male Erectile Dysfunction (ED) 12
2.1.1 Anatomy of the Penis 12
2.1.2 How Erection Occur in Males 13
2.1.3 How Erection is Sustained 13
2.1.4 Causes of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 14
2.1.5 Physical Causes of ED in Males 14
2.1.6 Psychological Causes of ED in Males 19
2.1.7 Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction 20
2.1.8 Patient History 20
2.1.9 Physical Examination 22
2.1.10 Laboratory test 22
2.1.11 Psychological Examination 23
2.1.12 Treatment of Males Impotence 23
2.2 Literature Review on Female Erectile Dysfunction 34
2.2.1 Anatomy of the Female External Genitalia 34
2.2.2 How Women Attain Clitoral Erection 36
2.2.3 Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.4 Physical Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.5 Psychological Causes of ED in Females 39
2.2.6 Diagnosis of Females Erectile Dysfunction 40
2.2.7 Treatment of Female Erectile Dysfunction 40
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2.3 Literature Review on Burantashi (Pausinystaliajohimbe) 41
2.3.1 Specie Identity 41
2.3.2 Taxonomy 41
2.3.3 History 42
2.3.4 Mechanism of Action 42
2.3.5 Botanic Description 43
2.3.6 Ecology and Distribution 44
2.3.7 Propagation and Management 44
2.3.8 Tree Management 45
2.3.9 Germplasm Management 45
2.3.10 Functional Uses 45
2.3.11 Medicinal Uses 46
2.3.12 Pests and Diseases 47
2.4 The Liver 47
2.4.1 Anatomy of the Liver 47
2.4.2 Histology 48
2.4.3 Structure of the Liver 50
2.4.4 Function of The Liver 54
2.4.5 Liver Infections/ Diseases 56
2.4.6 Liver Enzymes/ Functions 61
2.4.7 Alanine Transaminase (AIT) 62
2.4.8 Aspartate Transaminase (AST) 62
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2.4.9 Alkatine Phosphatase (AIP) 63
2.4.10 Total Bilirubin (TBIL) 63
2.4.11 Birect Bilirubin (Conjugated Bilirubin) 63
2.4.12 Gamma GlutamylTranspeptidase (GGT) 64
2.4.13 5’ Nucleotidase (5’ NTD) 64
2.4.14 Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) 64
2.5 Phytochemicals 65
2.5.1 Functions of Phytochemicals 65
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials 71
3.1 Method 75
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result 83
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion 89
5.1 Discussion 89
5.2 Conclusion 89
References 90
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
PHYSIOLOGY OF ERECTION
Penile Erection involves an integration of complex physiological processes involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, hormonal and vascular systems. Any abnormality involving these systems whether from medications or disease has a significant impact on the ability to develop and sustain erection; ejaculate and experience orgasm. (Laumann et al., 1999).
The physiological process of erection begins in the brain and involves the nervous and vascular system. The chemicals that initiate erection are neurotransmitters present in the brain. Any kind of stimulation physical or psychological, causes nerves to send message to the vascular system which result in significant blood flow to the penis. Two arteries in the penis supply blood to erectile tissues and the corpora cavernous which become engorged and expand as a result of increased blood flow and pressures. Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity. An erectile tissue is enclosed by tunicae, which is fibrous elastic sheathes cinch which prevents blood leaving he penis during
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electron. When muscle in the penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open out flow channels and an electron is reserved.
HORMONAL INVOLVEMENT IN ERECTION
 Oestrogen/Progesterone: (These are female hormones that cause clitoral
erection. If the body has two much oestrogen and or too little testost erone, she ca n get very wet but can not erect her clitoral and G-spot. ( Haimen et al., 2002). Estrogen tends to increase the size of the bread, labia minors (inner lips) and clitoral hood, but shrinks the glans clitoris into the clitoral hood making it invisible. It also increases the thickness of the vaginal lining making the G-spot inaccessible. The mechanism of the clitoral and G-spot erection is the same as that of the penis. It is driven by the parasympathetic sexual nerve (The neurotransmitter acetylcholine) through the neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide and the erection dilator cGMP, which is continuously powered by the burning of testosterone without a testosterone burst and burning. She cannot pop the glans Clitoris and G-spot out. If she is on birth control pills there is a chance that her body is over flooded by estrogens and low progesterone. Over loaded liver cannot produce sufficient essential enzymes to synthesize sufficient NO, cGMP and testosterone to support the clitoral and G-spot erection infact excessive estrogen or progesterone in the body will shrink the penis, clitoral and G-spot, but likely increase the breast size (under the excessive estrogen action).

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