PRINCIPAL MANAGEMENT AND EDUCATIONAL REPROCESS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION  
1.1.   Background of the study
In recent times, education stakeholders have expressed their concern over the poor performance of students in business education at the school certificate examination. Some blamed the school administrators (principals) and the principals while some blamed the students themselves and the parents. Whoever is to be blamed, the fact remains that, the school and its organizational management has correlation with the academic performance of the students. Leith (2004). The school principal who is the manager has a lot of roles to play in the academic achievement of the students. Ruth et all (1979) Wekessa (1997) Olagboye (2004) noted that to improve students’ performance, principals or managers are required first to improve the management of the schools. This can be done if the principal set a clear vision for the schools, exhibit instructional leadership, and also allow for team spirit in the school. Lack of vision in the management of school often lead to imbalance in the allocation of and use of resources. This is why Ayot and Briggs (1992) noted that academic achievement of students depends on effective leadership. The principal is the chief executive of the school. He has some administrative tasks to perform such as supervision of instructional programmes in the school, management of school personnel, management of school finance, maintenance of student welfare services and establishment of good community relations. His or her failure to perform these tasks effectively and efficiently will affect the tone of the school and achievement of academic goals.(Nwankwo 1982 and Peretomode 1991). In the discharge of these tasks, the manager is expected to plan, control, organize, coordinate and direct human and non-human resources in the organization in order to achieve the goals of the organization.(Adeleke 2001 and Onifade 2004) Nigeria education system is largely examination oriented. Hence poor performance of students in examination is always attributed to the school administration where the principal is at the helm of affairs. The poor performance of students in business studies had been largely attributed to poor management of the principals. It appears that most principals fail to monitor, and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to principals in the schools. This has been a source of concern to the government and education stakeholders. Observation shows that most schools both in rural and urban are not well equipped of learning materials, enough principals, computers were not available which could have prepared the students for electronic examination in future Even in some urban schools where computers were available the epileptic supply of electricity has limited their use. A consideration of the above posed a challenge to the administrative effectiveness of the principal. The inability of some principals to encourage team spirit, among principals, poor human relations with principals and inconsistent classroom visitations are all hindrance to effective learning and teaching. A principal who properly exercises his or her leadership responsibility will enable his or her school to realize good academic achievement. This argues the fact that effective management of organization is a prime contributory factor in achievement (Chitiavi, 2002). Principals are not exempted from the controversy on the poor performance of students in secondary school examinations. The poor attitude of principals to teaching and lack of professional development contribute to poor academic performance of students. A critical look at the students’ academic performances in business studies over the year show that much work is expected to be performed by principals and principals in order to improve the level of academic performance in secondary schools in the state. It is against this background that this study investigated the role of principal’s organizational management on academic achievement of students in secondary schools in Rivers States.
1.2.         Statement of the general problem
Poor performance of students in business studies has persisted despite the fact secondary schools are assumed to be having well-qualified students from primary schools, trained and qualified principals. The reasons for poor performance cannot be easily discerned without focused investigation. This implies that much work is being expected to be performed by principals and principals in order to improve the level of students’ academic performance in secondary schools. This study therefore aimed at focusing on the role of principal who is at the helm of affairs of the school on academic achievement of the students in secondary school.
1.3.         Aims and objectives of the study
The following are the aims and objectives for undertaking this study
1. To know if principal management influences students’ performance in business studies in Obioakpor LGA
2. To know if educational reprocess influences students’ performance in business studies in ObioAkpor LGA
3. To recommend ways of ensuring high students’ performance in business studies in ObioAkpor LGA.  
1.4.         Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study.
1. What are the principals’ organization skills that influenced academic achievement of the student?
2. Which academic activities do the principal need to participate to help improve academic performance of student?
3. Does educational reprocess influence students’ performance in Business studies?  
1.5.         Research hypothesis
H0: Principal management does not significantly influence students’ academic performance in business studies.
H1: Principal management significantly influences students’ academic performance in business studies.
1.6.         Significance of the study
This study would be useful to secondary school managements in ensuring improved academic performance across the secondary schools in the local government. This study would be useful to the state ministry of education in ensuring the admission of quality principals which should enhance the academic performance of students in business studies. This study would be useful to stakeholders in education.
1.7.   Scope of the study
This study is on principal management and educational reprocess and students’ performance in business studies in obio/akporlga of rivers state.
1.8.  Limitation of the study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.  
1.9.  Definition of terms
Business studies: the study of economics and management, especially as an educational topic.
Reprocess: to treat or prepare (something) by a special method again
Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people.

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