Select Currency
Translate this page

PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL USING PALM KERNEL

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 57  |  946 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL USING PALM KERNEL

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. It is an alcohol ester product from the transesterification of triglycerides in vegetable oils or animals accomplished by reacting lower alcohols such as methanol or ethanol with triglycerides. The National Biodiesel Board (USA) technically defined biodiesel as a mono-alkyl ester. Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel market place. Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. Much of the world uses a system known as the “B” factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix:

100% biodiesel is referred to as B100.

20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labelled B20.

5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labelled B5.

2% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labelled B2.

Blends of less than 20% biodiesel can be used in diesel equipment with no, or only minor modifications. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engine. New extreme high-pressure (29000 psi) common rail engine have strict factory limits of B5 or B20 depending on manufacturers. Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is non reactive to biodiesel. The first diesel engine was produced by Rudolf in Augsburg and Germany. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared “International Biodiesel Day”. Rudolf diesel demonstrated a diesel running on pea nut (at the request of the French government) but for the French otto company at the world fair in Paris, France in 1990. (Knothe, 2001). Biodiesel has been known to breakdown deposits of residue in the fuel lines where petrodiesel has been used. As a result, fuel filters may become clogged with particulates of a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change the fuel filters on engine and heaters shortly after switching to a biodiesel blend.

Biodiesel is light to dark yellow liquid immiscible with water, with high boiling point and low vapour pressure. It has been used as a substitute for diesel fuel in the automobile industry and also referred to as a diesel – equivalent processed fuel derived from vegetable oils. (Biodiesel, 2007). Several research have been performed on the production of biodiesel and some basic feedstock for the fuel includes animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamiapinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel is the lowest emission diesel fuel. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion, they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, meaning that it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel. This improves the combustion and reduces the particulate emission from un-burnt carbon. Biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, ten times less toxic than table salt, has a high flash point of about 300oF (148oC) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125oF (52oC).

Current commercial production of biodiesel (FAME) is via homogeneous transesterification but this process has a lot of limitations, thus, making the cost of biodiesel not economical as compared to petroleum-derived diesel. One of the most significant limitations using this process is the formations of soap in the product mixture leading to additional cost required for the separation of soap from the biodiesel. Also, the formation of soap has also led to the loss of triglycerides molecules that can be used to form biodiesel. However, since the catalyst and the reactants/products are in the same phase, the separation of products (biodiesel) from the catalyst becomes complex. On the other hand, heterogeneous transesterification can overcome all these limitations in which solid based catalyst is used in place of homogeneous catalyst, making it a more efficient process for biodiesel production with lower cost and reduced environmental impact. Xie et al. studied the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl ester using potassium-loaded alumina catalyst. Also, Suppes et al. studied the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts for the production of biodiesel, while Jitputti et al. studied the transesterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil using several acidic and basic solids. All these study indicated that different oils would require different catalyst for optimum conversion to biodiesel. {International Conference on Environment 2008 (ICENV 2008)}

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!