Select Currency
Translate this page

THE INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES AND ENHANCEMENT OF STUDENTS’ LEARNING ATTITUDE IN FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  429 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

THE INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES AND ENHANCEMENT OF STUDENTS’ LEARNING ATTITUDE IN FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 

CHAPTER ONE                                               

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

A public school is government-owned institution in which school fees are subsidized to students in a very moderate rate. In public school there are clearly defined goals, it allocates functions, delegates responsibilities, establishes and maintains its own institutional hierarchy through which the activities are co-ordinated.

Nkang (2002) observed that in school young boys and girls full of potentials are moulded and characters refined in order to help them grow steadily until they become mature and well adjusted adults, useful to themselves and to the society at large. Furthermore, she stressed that public schools are made up of the young and old, the dull and intelligent, the normal and abnormal, the emotionally stable and the maladjusted students of varying personality traits and different socio-economic background.

Adeoyin (2009) affirmed that the population of the school be it public or private school is broadly categorized into three groups: the students, the teachers and the non-teaching staff. These groups continuously interact in a web of communication while performing their duties on a daily basis and it is through this network of relationship that learning occurs. Therefore, conducive atmosphere need to be created for effective learning.

An indication of government interest in the public school is seen in government’s action on renovation of schools, employment of teachers, and other personnel as well as provision of facilities.

1

Granyanpfu (2013) discovered that government cannot guarantee all public schools even distribution of these infrastructural facilities, adequate employment of teachers, renovation of schools. This according to Granyanpfu, affects schools negatively and leads to poor academic performance. In the same vein, Hussain, Ahmed, Suleman and Din (2012) opined that most of our public schools suffer unattractive and old school buildings, cracked classroom walls and floors, lack of toilets, transport facility, proper security, drinking water, power supply, playgrounds, teaching staff, sufficient classroom, educational technology, first aids facility and adequate classrooms. The authors submitted that these inadequacies also affect academic achievement.

Financial Accounting is one of the subjects offered in secondary schools which are beneficial to every individual and business organization. Consequently, the involvement by individuals and organizations explained the need to promote accounting education. Okolo (1980) maintained that the life blood of any business organization, however small is money. The Nigerian Education Research and Development Council – NERDC (2007) recognized accounting as the language and soul of business. It is the language of the business in the sense that it is the mode in which business information is identified, processed, transmitted and received by the relevant parties in the business. The subject deals with recording, classifying, summarizing and interpreting financial transactions. The subject has assumed various descriptions such as bookkeeping, principles of accounting, financial accounting, not until recently when it is known as accounting. The aim of accounting in senior secondary schools is to assist students acquire the required skills and competences in the subject and to build on the aspect of bookkeeping covered in Business studies by students at the junior secondary school.

According to the National Examination Council – NECO (2004) the study of Accounting at senior secondary school aim at enabling students appreciate the basic rules, functions and principles of accounting and help to lay proper foundation for further study of accountancy and allied courses at higher education  level. Accounting also enables students to appreciate basic accounting principles, practice and their applications to modern business activities.

The best legacy parents can give to their children is quality education and it is the desire of parents, that their children should get the best education possible. This desire for qualitative education has put a lot of pressure on students, teachers and schools to assume the role of training and producing students for tertiary institutions and manpower for national development and world of work. Udofot (2004) agreed with the above assertion, that children education should bestow upon them the means to live more satisfying lives, get good jobs, become better citizens and contribute meaningfully to the immediate, national and international communities. Hence, the low levels of academic performance of students have become a great concern particularly to schools, educationist, parents and governments.

Academic performance is a key concern for educational researchers because failure in the National Examination spells doom for the students whose lives become uncertain and full of despair. Thus, academic performance in public secondary schools is the benchmark which determines whether such students will perform well in examinations such as Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB), Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE), organized by West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) to enable them proceeds to University or other tertiary institutions.

Wechler (2005) defined academic performance as excellence in all academic disciplines, in class as well as co-curricular activities. It includes excellence in sporting, behaviour, confidence, communication skills, assertiveness. The author added that academic performance is something one achieves in school, college, universities, laboratory, library or fieldwork. In educational institutions success is measured by academic performance or how a student meet the standard set by the examination bodies. Wilcockson (2006) opined that student’s academic performance is simply what you get out of an activity. Ada (2013) agreed with Wilcockson, that academic performance is the outcome of education and the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goal and this academic performance is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment. In order to promote academic performance schools must posses institutional variables that will enable students to study effectively and improve their performance. Thus, institutional variables are those variables that emanate from the school in which the school uses to improve their academic standard. This study therefore focuses on those institutional variables which include guidance and counseling, classroom facilities, classroom management, principal leadership style and accommodation type.

Guidance and counseling service is one which directs, leads, and helps a student to understand himself and his environment. The goal of guidance and counselling services is to enable each learner in institutions of learning to derive optimal educational benefits so as to actualize his or her potentialities. In secondary schools, guidance and counseling programme for students are designed to address the physical, emotional, social, vocational academic difficulties of students. This is to complement learning in the classroom and also enhance academic performance of student. Denga (2006) stated that major components of guidance and counseling services address student’s needs, challenges and problems.

Classroom facilities are those facilities that are available to facilitate students learning in classroom, availability of classroom facilities enhances quality academic performance of students. Inadequate classroom facilities affect academic performance of students negatively. Ganyaupfu (2013) supported that most institution which lack these facilities is likely results in malfunctioning; hence such schools may not compete academically with those schools that have acquired them. He added that poor and inadequacy of these affect the overall performance of the institutions while sufficiency promotes academic achievement and strengthen the all over institutional performance.

Principal leadership style is a process through which leader intentionally influence others in the attainment of group goals. Chang (2010) noted that leadership involves a guide that directs activities of individuals in a given direction in order to achieve the goal of the organization. He indicated that, there must be a group to be led, a set objective, is conscious attempt to influence the behaviour of others within the group and willingness of the subordinate to carry out the instruction. He concluded that leadership therefore is the abilities to get things done with the assistance and co-operation of other people within the institution.

According to Adunola (2011), classroom management refers to all those decisions that teacher take to facilitate the learning process so as to provide the students with maximum opportunity for learning. He further said that classroom management creates a sound, supportive and friendly environment in classroom where students feel secured, respect, care and safe. This brings about co-operation and sense of responsibility among students. While failure of the teacher to mange classroom effectively may encourage students to suffer from anti-social behaviours.

Boarding schools are those schools that provide accommodation for learners and usually chosen for their academic excellence, individual attention from teachers, diverse curriculum, excellent facilities, a wide range of building such as staff quarters, adequate classroom, recreational facilities etc. These are the reasons parent send their children to boarding school, which is believe to be higher than in non-boarding schools and boarding has a positive impact on academic performance of students.

Okon (2001) defined attitude as an individual perception and reaction to a task which is expected to be carried out or executed individually, in a group, institution, school setting or an organization. Attitude can be said to be positive or high when individual response to the task or programme is favourable. The positive learning attitudes include class attendance, class participation, participation in home work, and assignment and writing of notes. Moreso, when they show commitment to their duties. Students show negative attitude or low when they express a nonchalant response, with regard to what is expected of them in the given situation. The negative learning attitude include loitering during class, absenteeism, lack of concentration in class, neglect of home work, assignment, class participation etc. Without the development of the learning attitudes and skills, individuals will not be well prepared to acquire the new knowledge and skills necessary for successful adaptation to changing circumstances.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

A great concern has been expressed by the public over the consistent poor performance of students in public secondary schools examination conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). The poor performance in these examinations impact adversely on students, parents, governments and the general public at large considering the huge expenditure on education by governments at all levels.

Poor students’ academic performance particularly in Financial Accounting has been attributed to lack of qualified teachers in the subject area, inadequate instructional materials, equipment, facilities and poor learning attitude on the part of the students. The poor students’ learning attitude includes their study habits, irregular class attendance and participation in class activities. A lot of people continue to ask pertinent questions on what might be the cause of students’ failure in Financial Accounting whereas little has been said about institutional variables and the subject (Financial Accounting). This study therefore seeks to determine the institutional variables and their influence on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the influence of institutional variables on students learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study is designed to:

determine the influence of guidance and Counseling services on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. determine the influence of classroom facilities on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. determine the influence of principals’ leadership style on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. determine the influence of classroom management on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State. determine the influence of accommodation type on students’ learning attitude in Financial Accounting in Public Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!