Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  1015 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000






The major purpose of a horizontal well is to enhance reservoir contact and thereby enhance well productivity. A horizontal well is drilled parallel to the reservoir bedding plane. In other words, a vertical well is drilled perpendicular to the bedding plane (see fig1.1).

Figure 1-1

If the reservoir bedding plane is vertical, then a conventional vertical well will be drilled parallel to the bedding plane and in the theoretical sense it would be horizontal well. The objective here is to intersect multiple pay zones Horizontal wells have become popular for producing oil and gas reservoirs in many regions around the world. The objectives of horizontal wells include increasing oil and gas production, turning a non-commercial oil or gas reservoir into a commercial reservoir and controlling severe coning problems. Due to the fact that horizontal wells can enhance reservoir recovery, they should be taken into consideration when planning a field development. While horizontal wells are generally more expensive to drill than vertical wells, they often reduce the total number of wells required in a reservoir development. As an increasing number of horizontal gas wells are drilled, the need for a quick and reliable method to estimate the pressure-rate behavior of these wells is important to optimize well performance and make operational decisions. A reliable and simple analytical and empirical relationship will provide engineers a technique to assess the performance of horizontal wells prior to undertaking extensive and often time-consuming simulation studies to model the well behavior. 

Inflow performance relationship (IPR) is a pressure-rate relationships used to predict performance of oil and gas wells. There is a linear relationship when the reservoir is producing at pressure above bubble point pressure i.e. when Pwf is greater or equal to bubble point pressure. A curve is obtained at Pwf less than bubble point pressure. The linear form of an IPR represents the Productivity Index (PI) which is the inverse of the slope of the IPR. Horizontal oil well IPR also depends on the flow condition that is whether it is transient, steady or pseudo-steady state flow, which is determined by reservoir boundary condition. As the use of horizontal and multilateral wells is increasing in modern exploitation strategies, inflow performance relationships for horizontal wells are needed. The objective of this work is to develop analytical equation and IPRs for horizontal oil wells in steady state conditions that are easy to apply.
Horizontal wells are high-angle wells (with an inclination of generally greater than 85แต’) drilled to enhance reservoir performance by placing a long wellbore section within the reservoir. There was relatively little horizontal drilling activity before 1985. A variety of configurations of drilled wells have come to be characterized as horizontal wells or drainholes. Drainholes are short length wellbores drilled pre-existing vertical wells in order to enhance production. These extend between 100 and 500 ft. in either direction. Horizontal wells on the other hand, involve the drilling of new wells and are usually 1000ft or more in length. 

The use of horizontal wells to increase the area of contacted reservoir dates back to the early 1940’s. Feasibility of creating such architecture to drain a reservoir better, has been proven for a long time but the economic viability of such a process did not establish itself until recent years. This has been largely due to titanic advances in drilling, surveying and interpretation technologies.

The following are fields around the world that have been successfully drilled and are producing through horizontal wells:

Austin Chalk Formation Texas

Spraberry Tread West Texas

Pearsall Field South Texas

Okoro Oilfield Niger Delta, Nigeria


Horizontal wells are mostly applied in the following areas;

1. To Exploit Thin Oil and Gas Zone Reservoirs: A horizontal wells reflects an increased area of contact of the well with the reservoir when compare to vertical wells in a thin pay zone. As a result of this increased area of contact, there is an increase in production from horizontal wells. 

Figure 1-2: Horizontal well following thin bed formation

2. Reduction of Coning: A horizontal well is expected to have a reduced pressure drawdown when compared to a vertical well for a similar production level. This reduced drawdown pressure is expected to delay the onset of water (gas) breakthrough. Oil recovery is expected to be high except in cases where the well intersects fractures or zones of high permeability which could result in early water (gas) breakthrough. 

Figure 1-3: use of horizontal well to minimize Water and/or Gas coning

3. To intersect fracture in a naturally fractured reservoir in order to drain them effectively.
Figure 1-4: Intersection of Fractures
4. In Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) applications, especially in thermal EOR. Horizontal well provides a large reservoir contact area and therefore enhances injectivity of an injection well. It also helps to increase the sweep efficiency. 


1. Improved sweep efficiency in pattern flood situations.

2. Reduction in coning. Lower drawdown for the same flow rate as vertical wells, causes stable interface movement delaying the breakthrough of unwanted fluids. 

3. Reduced fluid velocities around wellbore thereby reducing the occurrence of turbulent flow.

4. Fewer number of wells is required for field development.

5. Better access to isolated zones and exploiting gravity drainage mechanism effectively.

6. Drilling relief wells for blow out prevention.

7. Accessing untapped portion of a reservoir under constrained drilling conditions (offshore platforms).


1. It is not suitable for thick reservoirs.

2. Completion and Stimulation technology has not been perfected yet.

3. If natural fractures connect the aquifer or gas cap, the breakthrough of unwanted fluids can be accelerated.

4. Not suitable in low vertical permeability situations. 

5. Higher cost of drilling per well.

6. Hole problems encountered while drilling can be a serious drawback. 


The relation between production rate (q) and flowing wellbore pressure (pwf) over the practical range of production conditions, this relation is commonly known as inflow performance relationship (IPR). Productivity index is a measure of the ability of a well to produce. It is the ratio of the liquid flow rate to the pressure drawdown defined as below:


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys ๐ŸŒŸ ๐ŸŒŸ ๐ŸŒŸ ๐ŸŒŸ
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause Iโ€™ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!