Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 56  |  596 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000








A battery charger is an electrical device employed in charging batteries that are usually charged by battery charges are the storage batteries also known as “accumulators”.

          The charger is made up of various electrical and electronics component which for the purpose of clanty are group into your basic unit they are:

The power supply units

The smoothing circuits

The regulating unit and

Regulated D.C charging units

          Battery chargers comes in various designs and voltage.  The choice of a particular and of charger that depends largely int eh size of battery or battery or batteries which on mterds to charge the mini battery changer could be used to charge batteries whose voltage ranges from 6 – 12 volts. The bigger battery changes are for batteries with voltage ranging from 12 – 48 volts.  These are the heavy duty batteries.

          The battery charge is builts in such a way that it delivers a constant value of d.c current into the battery it is charging in the opposite direction from which current flows on the batteries during discharge one cannot successfully design a battery charge with out a fundamental understanding of the accumulator because it also makes up the operation.

          Thus chapter two aimed at a brief study of the accumulator (battery).  Chapter three deals with the power supply units which series as the backbone of the battery charger and how the automatic cut off is achieved.     

          Chapter four fully analysis the operates of the battery charger and its casing which chapter five while happen to be the last chapter aimed at concluding the summarizing what has been achieved at the end of the project.


A battery is a group of electrical cells connected in series or series/parallel produces electrical energy as a result of chemical energy stored on it.

Batteries are generally divided into two groups these are the primary cells and secondary cell which are mostly known as a storage batteries or accumulators.

          Primary cell which are usually dry cell for example, touch batteries (the lechanche dry all) the mercury cell etc.  the cannot be re-charged ones their chemical energy is fully utilized.

          The secondary all or storage all can be re-charged ones their chemical energy is fully utilized, hence we will discuss more on these kinds of cells (as they are the ones that will be charged with a battery charger).

          The storage cell are also known as accumulator.  In these types of cells, the chemical althon between the electrode and the electrolytes is trudy reversible.  A current (d.c) passed though it in opposition to its E.M.F reforms the original material of the electrodes and the cell can therefore be sued again and again.  We shall consider two of the most common types of storage cell.

          The nickel – iron (Nike) accumulator, the asteve material in the positive plates in nickel oxide (N12 03) and the negative plates finally divided.  The electrolyte is a solution of potassium hydroxide (K0H) when H2ions movest anode and S04 ions to the cathode.  At anode (Pb02) it combine with oxygen of (Pb02) and H2 S04 attacks lead to forum pbS04.


The lead acid accumulator is one of the mostly widely used t ypes of storage cell. The negative electrode is of lead and the positive electrode is of lead (iv) oxide (pb02).  The electrolyte is sulphur acid initially of density. 1.21 the initial emf of the battery it about 2.1 volts.  This rapidly decrcoses to 2.0 volts at which figure it remains nearly constant until the battery is almost discharge re-charging should be begin if the emf falls as low as 1.8 volts.

          Those substance of the cell which stake active part in chemical combination and hence absords or produces electricity during charging or discharging are known as active materials of the cell.  The active materials of a lead acid cell are.

1.                 Lead peroxide (Pb02) for positive plate

2.                 Spong lead (Pb) for negative plate

3.                 Delute Sulphorine Acid (H2 S04) as electrolyte

Lead peroxide (pb02) is a combination of lead and oxygen.  Its dure chocolate brown in colour and its quite hard but brittle substance.  It is made up of one atom of lead (pb) and two atoms of oxygen (02) and its chemical formular is Pb02: As said earlier, it posses the positive action material of the accumulator.  The spong lead (pb) is a pure leads in soft sponge or porous conduction, its chemical formualr is Pb and forms the negative alhra material.

          The dilute sulphrine acid is approximately  three parts water and one parts suphurie acid the chemical formular of this is H2 S04.  The positive and negative plates are inversed in this solution known as electrolyte.  The current producers chemical changes in this solution.  Hence the  lead acid cell depend.  For its action of the presence of two plates covered with Pb02and Pb in solution of dilute H2S04 of specific gravity of 1.21 or ne3ar about as earlier stated.  The basically means of discharging and the charging process of the accumulator is known as chemical charger.

          In the process of the accumulator is known as chemical charger.  In the process of dischargings of a battery.  If the cell is fully charged, it s positive plate or anode is Pb02 (dack chocolate brown0 and the negative plate or cathode is pb (slate grey) when the cell discharges, the scorda current through the extend lend, then H2 S04 is dissociated into positive H2and negative S04 ions.  As the current within the cell is flowing from cathode to anode in the process of charging of a battery if the cell is recharged, then hydrogen ions (H2) moves to cathode and S04 ions gas to anode and the following charges would likely placed.

          At cathode

                   Pb S04 + H2          Pb + H2 S04

          At Anode

                   Pb S04 + S04 + 2H20                          Pb02 + 2H2 S04

General, it will be noted that during discharging the following are absorbed:

i.                   Both anode and cathode becomes pb S04 which is whitish in colour

ii.                 The specific gravity and acid is discharged due to the formation of water

iii.              The voltage of the cell decrease

iv.              The cells given out energy


          These are basically four method of charging batteries.   They are includes:

a.                 Constant voltage

b.                 Constant current

c.                  Ride charging and

d.                 Floating charging

But for the purpose of celerity and simplification of works and increase of theirs project it is the constant voltage method that we are going to discuss furt6her.  This method has been employed while testing and constructing the charger.


In the method of charging the voltage is  maintained at a value which is slightly in excess of the end of fully charged battery, act the beginning of the charging period the current is charged.

          During the charging process the current fails as the emf of the cell rises to approach the charging voltage when the battery is fully charged it up to its maximum 12 volts, the charger will automatically stop charging with the help of the contact relay, the transistor and the zener dioxide which send the current back to the system.

          Then at this moment

          The charging current is usually determined from the formular

IC      =       V – E


Where         IC      =       Charging current

                   V       =       Output voltage

                   E       =     E.M.F of the battery (at full charged)

                   r        =       Internal resistance of the battery


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!