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Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 68  |  1074 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





This project report is a thesis written specifically to cover the design analysis construction, test and packaging of a multipurpose security system from electric component that can be easily be obtainable from the market. The report discusses the various unit and stages of the alarm system, thesis include:- a) Clock generation and frequency division unit. b) The control and section unit, comprising of a one shot 555 timer multiplexer, sound amplifier and the latch. c) The detection and switching unit made up of the fire and burgler sensors and priority encoder. d) The output unit comprising of the visual display and audio systems. These units have been lucidly represented with block diagrams and the calculations and the analysis of each component in the circuit of each block were done in the subsequent chapters of this part. However, my own project is designed to serve three purposes: to detect human touch, burglar operation and to detect fire, giving the corresponding alarms and indications. In a situation where there is a need to monitor the movement of people in a confidential building or a restricted area or to alert security-men in the case of fire outbreak, multipurpose security system is an electronic gadget which detect human shadow, human touch and fire and alert security-men through an alarm and equally display the particular room or area in which the target was hit. The multi-purpose security system uses Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) to sense human shadow, touch switch to sense human touch and thermistor to sense fire.The circuit is enclosed in such a way that if he sensor are installed in each various room, say room 1,2 and 3 etc. If an intruder wants to break through, say room 2 once he touches the handle of the door, the touch sensor senses his touch, then triggers an alarm and display room 2 on a big display board. If to say, there is fire outbreak in the same room 2 the fire sensor will sense it, trigger an alarm and equally display room 2. This is also application to all the room that has the sensor. Multipurpose security system can equally be applied in banks, industries, financial institutions, schools and home to help safeguard lives and property.



1.1 Block diagram of multi-purpose alarm system

3.1 Flowchart on design and construction procedures

4.1 Internal circuit of 555 timer IC

4.2 Astable multivibrator circuit using inverters

4.3 Output waveform of 555 timer oscillator

4.4 Astable circuit configuration, using Rb = Rs + Rp

4.5 One short configuration using 555 timer IC  unit

4.6 Waveform of triggered mode

4.7 One shot multivibrator circuit

4.8 Pin configuration of 74LS191

4.11 Functional block diagram for 74LS153

4.14 Circuit diagram of frequency multiplexer 74LS153

a) Basic common-emitter circuit         

b) Load-line construction.

4.21 Transistor amplifier arrangement with signal symbol

4.22 Transistor amplifier arrangement with signal symbol

4.23 Amplifier configuration component values

4.31 Pin configuration of 74LS175

4.32 Functional block diagram of Quadruple D-type FF (74LS175)

4.41 Typical IC encoder

4.42 8 line-to-line priority encoder 74LS148

4.44 Bimetallic heat detector

4.45 Time temperature curve

5.1 Isometric diagram of package multi-purpose alarm system.



4.01 Table of various frequencies of operation from the oscillator unit

4.11 Table of result of frequency derision

4.12 Table for the  74LS153 multiplexer operation

4.31 Functional table for D-type flip flop 74LS175

4.41 Functional table of 74LS148 priority encoder.


IC Integrated Circuit

O/P Output

I/P Input

Vcc +5 Volt Supply

GND Ground or Earth

NE Segment

FF Flip Flop

TTL Transistor-transistor logic

CMOS Complementary Metallic Oxide Semi Conductor Logic

CLK Clock

CLR Clear

F Frequency

C(exp) Exponential

C/M Count Up

C/O Count Down

EL Enabled Input

EO Enabled Output

NPN Negative-Positive-Negative

VCE Collector Emitter Voltage

VBE Base-Emitter Voltage

VCB Collector Base Voltage

Sat Saturation

IC Collector

IB Base Current

RB Base Current

L/S Loud Speaker

KΩ Kilo ohms

KHZ Kilo-hertz

Dip Dual in line package

V Volts



Title pageApproval page




List of tables

List of abbreviations

Table of contents



Objective of the project

Project layout

Background information

Block diagram


Literature Review


Detection and switching unit

Fire detector

Human shadow detector

Human touch sensor

The hatch circuit

The alarm circuit

The display board

Power supply unit



Obtaining project topic and specifications

Choosing a suitable circuit

Selecting component values

Circuit analysis

Construction and testing


Design analysis

Frequency generation

Clock generation

Amplification stage

Operation of a transistor

Switching operation of a transistor

Transistor biasing.


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