THE IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM ON NIGERIA'S NATIONAL SECURITY
1.1 Background of the Study
Terrorism is seen as a dimension of insecurity. It is a premeditated use of threat or violence by subnational groups to obtain a political or self-interest objectives through intimidation of people, attacking of states, territories either by bombing, hijackings, and suicide attacks, among others. It implies a premeditated, political motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents ( US Commission, 2012; Ogbonnaya and Ehigiamuose, 2013). Two types of terrorism have been identified; domestic and transnational. Domestic terrorism involves the activities of terrorist in a host country, and their targets are fellow citizens, their properties and the countries institutions and policies either for political reasons or otherwise. For instance, the activities of Boko Haram terrorist in Nigeria, Tamils in Sri Lanka. On the other hand, transnational terrorism involves more than one country. This can stem from the victims, targets, institutions and supporters, terrorist or implications (Sandler and Ender 2008). A good example of transnational terrorism is the US attack of 9/11. Terrorism is the use of violent action in order to achieve political aims or to force government to act (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary). It can also be seen as using violent or threat to obtain a political objective. Terrorism has become a hydra headed monster characterized by unprecedented and unpredictable threats, both domestically and internationally and has kept governments of developed and developing countries on their toes. It has become one of the most complex and complicated phenomenon of the contemporary world (Stibli, 2010). The current wave of terrorism now poses a greater threat than ever before. It has caused sufficient harm to society in areas of loss of lives and property, economic loss by diverting foreign direct investment (FDI) from target countries to other non-target countries; crowd out government resources meant for development purposes by government channeling a large part of its revenue into security vote. The world has recorded a lot of terrorist attacks. Some of these incidents include; the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) attacks on hotels and resorts in 1980s in Spain; the Irish Republican Army (IRA) attacks on London’s financial district at the Baltic Exchange (April 10, 1992) and Bishopsgate (April 24, 1993); attacks on London’s transport system in July 7, 2005; the al-qaida attack on the world trade center in September 11, 2001(9/11) (Gaibulloev and Sandler, 2009). Others include recent attacks in kenya, Pakistan, Nigeria, etc. The level of insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria both in the northern and southern part has become a major issue for the government. Since 1990 when the activities of the Niger Delta militants started until recent times when Boko Haram insurgents arose in the Northern part of the country, Nigeria has witnessed unprecedented security challenges. These challenges ranges from kidnapping, suicide attacks, bombings, ritual killings, assassinations, armed robbery, and this has led to the destruction of lives and properties, hindered business activities, discouraged local and foreign investors, increases government expenditure on security, all of these stifles and retards Nigeria’s socio-economic development (Ewetan and Urhie, 2014). The events surrounding September 11, 2001 and other recent events of terrorism across the globe especially the current wave of terrorism in Nigeria, has focused our minds on issues of terrorism and insecurity.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In recent years, the terrorist activities in different dimensions have constituted a major menace to the Nigerian society and the global community at large (Yusif, 2008). Scholars have established a relationship between terrorist activities and national development globally (Akpan, Akpan & Lofu-Adeoye, 2014). Hitherto, the Nigerian government has made concerted efforts towards eradicating terrorism activities in the country but this has yielded little success even with the support of different foreign counterparts. The reason for the little success so far is due to the fact that terrorism has reached a high degree both at home and abroad. Besides, the spread and availability of guns and ammunition in the nooks and crannies of Nigeria, occasioned by numerous porous borders, past military experiences, corruptions, repressive attacks by government against communities and leading spokes persons, have resulted in the significant spread of terror in the North eastern part of Nigeria witnessed today. This reality constitutes a major motivation for the current study. However, this study seeks to examine the implications of international terrorism on Nigeria’s security.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The study aims to achieve the following objectives:
a. To determine the external terrorist group that is affiliated with the internal terrorist group in Nigeria.
b. To determine the implication of external or international terrorism on Nigeria’s security.
c. To suggest ways of minimizing the effects of the terrorism on Nigeria’s security.
1.4 Research Questions
The study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:
a. What is(are) the international terrorist group affiliated with the internal terrorist group in Nigeria.
b. What is the implication of international terrorism on Nigeria’s security?
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study examines the implications of international terrorism and how they relate to Nigeria. The implications are examined in the security aspect, the business aspect of Nigeria and the economy as a whole.
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