Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 78  |  1461 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000







Participation of employee describes the involvement of employee in decision making which is concerned with shared decision making in the work situation [Mitchell, 1973]. [Locke & Schweiger, 1979] defines employee participation as a joint decision making between managers and subordinates. According to [Noah, 2008] it is a special form of delegation in which the subordinate gain greater control, freedom of choice with respect to bridging the communication gap between the management and workers. It refers to the degree of employee involvement in organization’s strategic planning activities. A company can have deep or shallow employee participation in decision making [Barringer & Bleudorn, 1999]. The employee participation in the planning process leads to potential innovation, which may facilitates opportunity and recognition in the organization [Zivkovic et al, 2009]. Managers provide opportunities for participation of subordinates in decision making on the basis of their merits as it has been proved by researchers to have improved organizational performance [Witte, 1980; Sagie & Aycon, 2003]

The advantages of employee participation in an organization:

1.  It increases employee’s morale and enhances the productivity [Chang& Lorenzi, 1983]

2.  It provide employees the opportunity to use their intellectual which will lead to better decisions for the organization [Williamson, 2008]

3.  Employee participation contributes to trust and sense of control[Chang& Lorenzi, 1983]

4.  As a result of employee participation, resources required to monitor employee can be minimized thus reduced cost [Arthur, 1994; Spreitzes &Mishra, 1999]

5.  Employee participation in an organization maximizes the view points and give diversity of perspectives [Kemelgor, 2002]

There are too many evidences that shows organizational’s performance increase with the increase in employee participation [Arthur, 1994; Daft & Lewin, 1993; Denninson & Mishra, 1995;

Productivity is the performance measure encompassing both efficiency and effectiveness, high performing and effective organization posses a culture of encouraging employee participation. Therefore, employees are more willing to get involved in decision making process, like goal setting, problem solving activities which results in higher performance [ Hellriegel, Slocum & Woodman 1998]. Encourage more modern participative style of management raise employee productivity and satisfaction even with low compensation rates [Madison, Wisconsin, 2000]. Job satisfaction increases productivity through high quality motivation and through increasing working capabilities at the time of implementation [Miller & Mange, 1986]. These were the evidences that participative working environment has more substantial effects on workers’   productivity.

Every organization seeks to improve and increase its performance level by providing learning opportunities to its workers (Weiss et al., 1998). Organizations must perform at individual level to improve their performance of whole organizational. All subdivisions of the organizations must perform well to achieve overall performance level (Ward, 2007). Organizations in all over the world have designed different processes to improve performance level from functional to employees and till organizational level to perk up overall organizational performance. Organizations are also required to manage performance of its employees and functions by setting goals and achieving those (Good et al., 2004). According to Dess & Robinson (1984), organizational performance can be enhanced by improving employee participation and management must have certain tools to improve employee participation in that sector. Wheelen and Hunger (1998) says that level of performance is based on objectives and goals set by an organization. For every company working in market the main goal is to earn profit and reduce expenses. Organizations can improve their profit and reduce their expenses by improving employee participation (Sorenson, 2002). According to Lee et al., (2004) level of progress and participation is different in every company. Many organizations delegate authority and power to their employees and due to that authority organizations performance also increases. An organization which gives authority to their employee to take decision also enhances their own skills. Organizations which perform well also involve employees in decision making and other organizational decisions. Rashid, et al., (2003) says that organizations also require more profit on their input and financial benefits on all expenses occurred. According to Ho et al., (2006) organizations require different analysis to measure their profitability and this shows that organization profitability can be increased when performance level of an organization also increases.


Employee participation shows that each employee is a different person, not just a component in a mechanism, and every employee is concerned in serving the business to get together its objective. Each employee contribution is asked for and appreciated by organization. Workers and management recognize that each employee is involved in running the business (Apostolou, 2000). Employee participation is a procedure to authorize workers to contribute in decision-making behavior suitable to their rank in the association.

Employee participation can therefore be seen as an umbrella title under which can be found a wide range of practices, potentially serving different interests. Any exploration of ‘employee participation’ has therefore to encompass terms as wide-ranging as industrial democracy, cooperatives, employee share schemes, employee involvement, human resource management (HRM) and high-commitment work practices, collective bargaining, employee empowerment, team working and partnership to capture the full picture of employee participation. However, the researcher will investigate the effect of employee participation on organizational performance.


The general objective of this study is to examine the effect of employee participation on organizational performance while the following are the specific objectives:

1. To examine the effect of employee participation on organizational performance

2. To find out ways/methods of introducing effective employee participation programme in an organization

3. To determine the challenges that are associated with employee participation.


1. What are the effects of employee participation on organizational performance?

2. What are the ways/methods of introducing effective employee participation programme in an organization?

3.  What are the challenges associated with employee participation in an organization?


HO: There is no significant relationship between employee participation and organizational performance.

HA: There is significant relationship between employee participation and organizational performance.


This study will help management and administrators of corporate business organization as a guide in implementing an effective employee participation programme to encourage employee involvement in decision making. By doing so, employee will put in their intellectual contribution towards improved organizational performance. The findings of this research work will also serve as reference for academic endeavour to lecturers and students and also help the public who would want to know about some advantages and disadvantages (if any) of employee participation and its effect on organizational performance.


The scope of this study on the effect of employee participation on organizational performance will cover the process of employee involvement in decision making process in an organization carefully describing the benefits that is accrue to it.


Organization: A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals

Participation: Joint consultation in decision making, goal setting, profit sharing, teamwork, and other such measures through which a firm attempts to achieve organization performance

Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract. 


Apostolou, A (2000). “Employee Involvement” Dissemination of innovation and knowledge management techniques” Technical University of Crete.

Arthur, J.B. (1994) “Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover” . Academy of Management Journal, 37: 670-687.

Barringer, B.R., & Bluedorn, A.C. (1999) “ The Relationship between Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic  Management”. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 421-444.

Chang, G.S., & Lorenzi, P. (1983) “The Effects of Participative versus Assigned Goal Setting on Intrinsic  Motivation”. Journal of Management, 9: 55-64.

Daft, R.L., & Lewin, A.Y. (1993) “ What are the Theories for the „New‟ Organizational Forms?  An Editorial Essay Organizational Science”, 4: 1 -4.

Dess, G.G. and Robinson, R.B.J. (1984). “Measuring Organizational Performance in the Absence of Objective Measures: The Case of the Privately-Held Firm and Conglomerate Business Unit”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 265-273.

Good, A.D. and Carin, B. (2004), “Individual and organizational performance arrangements”, Kaliningrad Workshop. [Accessed on 17-07-07].

Ho, T.C. and Wu, S.Y. (2006). “Benchmarking performance indicators”, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1/2, pp. 147-159.

Kemelgor, B.H. (2002) “A Comparative Analysis of Corporate Entrepreneurial Orientation between Selected Firms in the Netherlands and the U.S.A”.  Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 14: 67-87.

Lee K .J. S., Yu K., (2004). “Corporate culture and organizational performance Journal of Managerial Psychology 19: Issue: 4 Page: 340 – 359.

Locke, E.A., & Schweiger, D.M. (1979) “  Participation in Decision-making: One More Look” . Research in Organizational Behavior, 1: 265-339.

Mitchell TR. (1973)“Motivation and participation: An integration ”. Academy of Management Journal, 16: 670–679.

Rashid, A. Z., Sambasivan, M. and Johari, J. (2003). “The influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment on performance”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 22 (8), pp. 708-728.

Sagie, A., & Aycan, Z. (2003) “ A Cross- Cultural Analysis of Participative Decision- Making in Organizations”. Human Relations, 56 (4): 453-473.

Sorensen, J.B. (2002). “The strength of corporate culture and the reliability of firm performance”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47: 70-91.

Spreitzer, G.M., & Mishra, A.K. (1999) “Giving UP Control Without Losing Control: Effects on Managers‟  Involving Employees in Decision Making” . Group and Organization Management, 24 (2): 155-187.

Ward, D.M. (2007). “Organizational Performance: A Disconcerted Effort”, White Paper, Integrated Performance Systems, Inc.

Weiss, B.T. and Hartle, F. (1998). “Reengineering performance management: Breakthroughs in achieving strategy through people”, The Hay Group, St. Lucie Press, Roca Raton, Florida.

Wheelen, L.T. and Hunger, D.J. (1998). “Strategic Management and Business Policy: Entering 21st century global society”, Sixth Edition, Addison-Wesley.

Witte, J.F. (1980) “ Democracy, Authority, and Alienation in Work: Workers‟ Participation in an American Corporation”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Zivkovic, Z., Mihajlovic, I., Prvulovic, S. (2009) “ Developing Motivational Model as a Strategy for HRM in Small Enterprises under Transitional Economy”. Serbian Journal of Management, 4(1): 1-27. 


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 54 135 1187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!