1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Marketing plays an important role in a market economy. The role of marketing as an incentive to fish production and productivity cannot be over emphasized. According to Chikwenwu (2005:12), the marketing of agricultural commodities in Nigeria involves various markets or exchange points. The number of exchange points depends on the nature of the point of production and that of consumption. If the marketing process is efficient, it will go a long way in providing sufficient food to the populace through the process of market mechanism Lawal, I. (2004:12). The influence of market mechanism on price to a great extent determines the amount of food which peoples can afford. The effect of marketing process is assessed by the ability of the market to create time, place form and possession utility. Since rapid preservation and transport became available in the 19th to 21st century fish such as poor socio-economic environment like access road, developed market, school for children etc, poor storage facilities and fish spoilage, effect on cost-returns of fish marketers, constraints of fish marketing such as transportation, Epileptic power supply in the cold room, high cost of fish, poverty, financial and processing problems.
Idega, N. (2004:34), hunger and malnutrition remain amongst the most devastating problems facing the world poor and needy. About 80 to 90 million people have to be fed yearly and most reliable source of protein for many is fish, yet millions of people who depend on fish are faced daily with the fear of food shortage and Dittoh, (1985). With the population of Nigeria on the rise, there is a corresponding demand for fish consumption. Thus, there is the need for a suitable agricultural system to meet the increasing demand for food, and also maximize the utilization of the available limited resources without much wastage. Integrated fish farming is a diversified and coordinated way of farming with fish as the main target along with other farm products. According to Akinleye, (2004:12), despite the abundance of human and natural resources, Nigeria depends largely on importation to meet its fish consumption needs. Fish is one of the most diverse groups of animals known to man with more than 20,500 species. In fact, to many Nigerians on the coastal areas, creeks and rivers, fish is one of their major sources of protein which is essential for healthy human growth Downey, (1972:65). The shortfall has resulted in a low animal per capital consumption rate of 7.5 kg against the 13 kg recommended by the food and agriculture organization. Fishing is as old as mankind. It has been established throughout the world. Of the 36 states of the federation, nine are located on the coast with access to the Atlantic Ocean Kow, T. (2002:12). With this Scenario, the natural markets can technically be established at any place. In marketing, fish passes through various market participant and exchange pounds before they reach the final consumer. These market intermediaries are the whole sellers and retailers. Both play important role in the marketing system.
Furthermore, due to the cumbersome nature of fish distribution channel, the local fish seller is faced with the problem of profit maximization Akanni (2007:12). Thus, the result is that activities in this sector are mainly dominated by private sector presence with little or no mobilization from the government. Therefore, any attempt used at improving a country’s marketing system has to start with a correct analysis of the problem. Fish is one of the best sources of protein food because of its balanced amino acids configuration, digestibility and low cholesterol level. To this end, the demand for fish has been on the increase. (Olukosi et al., 2007:53), hence, in 1981, 384000 tons of fish were consumed in Nigeria out of which 296000 tons were produced locally and the balance imported (FAO, 1989). Fish also contribute 6-8% of agricultural sector total contribution to GDP (FAO, 1989). The fishery sub-sector provides employment opportunities to many Nigerians including those involved in direct fish processing and marketing Amos, (1998).
It is important to evaluate marketing systems of fish because they indicate how the various market participants are organized to accomplish the movement of the commodity from the producer to the ultimate consumer. Marketing of fish is not usually on the basis of fisherman to consumer. There are several middlemen in the link between producers (fishermen) and consumers (Adegeye, I. (1993:232). Therefore price of fish changes as it passes through middlemen such that by the time it reaches the final consumer, it has increased considerably. Since proper marketing of fish ensures that fish is made available to all and sundry, it therefore becomes imperative that assessment of fish marketing be carried out to determine the viability and effectiveness of marketing system of fish. Marketing of fish could be regarded as the performance of all business activities involved in the flow of fish from the point of production (fisherman or fish farmer) to the final consumer Olukosi et al., (2007:76). Efficient marketing system is significant in a country under all condition and at all stage of its development. Effective marketing system will locate where there are surpluses of produce and bring them to where there are shortages (Chikwenwu and).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
It is important to know that the lesser familiar a species is, the greater the risk that it will be rejected or take a long way to build up demand for it, people’s taste are formed slowly and strongly influenced by traditional eating habits. As prices rise, less is bought and as prices fall, more is bought and poor people are more likely to look for cheaper substitutes than rich people. Thus, in terms of the price dynamics, marketing costs and the marketing functions inherent in the distribution of fish and in relation to how efficient the marketing system is. Spatial price behavior is an important indicator of overall market performance in terms of marketing efficiency. The constraints of adequate capital needed for efficient marketing activities and problems of diversification of the economy which gives equal priority to all real productive sectors. In many countries, a common problem in fish marketing is loss of profit due to fish spoilage, post harvest losses occur more frequently in the rainy reason than in the dry season. Thus, the present development encountered by the fish traders according to include:
1. Lack of improved technology for the management of fish production.
2. The current methods of harvesting are inefficient.
3. Wasteful and exploitative.
Problem of establishing adequate fishing, production and marketing policies, devoid of sentiments, tribalism and ethnicity the major constraints facing fish marketing in Nigeria are pronounced in the various pre-harvesting methods of fishery products in Nigeria. Such methods involve the usage of mainly artisan and to an extent, commercial (trawler system). Infrastructural problems particularly transportation do militate against the development of fish marketing in Nigeria.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To examine the constraint associate with the effective fish marketing.
2. To examine the strategies for effective fish marketing.
3. To assess the benefit of fish to Nigerian Economy.
4. To identify the impact of fish in human body.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the constraint associates with the effective fish marketing?
2. What are the strategies for effective fish marketing?
3. What are the benefits of fish to Nigerian Economy?
4. What are the impacts of fish to human?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this research, the significance of this study is to bring together the various ways and facts as regards to subject matter, constraints to marketing fish and fish product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria.
1. It is believed that the outcome of this research work will be of interest to farmers and to even to the consumers.
2. The research work will provide them with vital information regarding constraints to marketing fish and fish product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria. The farmers can utilize this study to make amendments or control a number of lapses that may be affecting the effective marketing fish product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria, in terms of high price and lack of capital.
3. It will also highlight the benefits of effective marketing of fish product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria to increase the status of the farmers.
4. This research work will also serve as a vital material to those who may want to carry out further research work in this regard.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research study is limited to Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria alone where the researcher wants to find out constraints to marketing fish and fish product by farmers.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following limitations are inherent in the study. The researcher in the process of gathering information and relevant fact face some naturally and man-made constraints such as:
Time factor: owing to the fact that this study is carried out within the time the researcher is battling in her semester work, she could not have enough time to gather some information and materials reached for the work at its disposal.
Lack of finance: the researcher as a student still depends mostly on the goodwill of the parents and sponsor for the reached finance. As a result of this the resources available at its disposal for the research work is not enough. It therefore handicapped her from getting asses to all the reached materials for the study.
Materials resource: the researcher find it difficultly to reached some textbook, journal, thesis to carried out the work, due to inability of the researcher to cope with time and finances to carry out the time assign task.
Human Element: this study has some human element, and such cannot be said to be perfect. It base on the concept of reasonable assurance, despite the existing limitation of the study, the researcher assumes that all the information obtains is the best of her knowledge.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Economy: - This is the process of production, distribution or trade and consumption of limited goods and service by different agents in a given geographical location.
Fish: - This is any member of a paraphyletic group that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals that lack limbs with digits.
Marketing: - Is communicating the value of a product, service or brand to customers, for the purpose of promoting or selling that product, service, or brand.
Mechanism: - This is rigid bodies connected by joints in order to accomplish a desire force or motion transmission.
Productivity: - This is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to input used in the production process, i.e output per unit of input.
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