THE ESSENCE OF RESEARCH AND HOW TO GENUINELY CONTRIBUTE TO THE FIELD OF ACADEMICS WITH YOUR PAPER
By Iprojectmaster Analyst, Posted on 22-10-18
Before carrying out a research on any field of study, it is important to know the purpose of doing such if not there won’t be any justification for your research. So we shall be looking at the essence of research and how to carry out an academic research.
ESSENCE OF RESEARCH
•        To expand the horizon of knowledge by filling the gaps in knowledge through the discovery of new information. This promotes a deeper understanding of the phenomenon we are interested in.
•        To discover and verify relationships among various aspects of nature or study
•        To test and verify new and existing knowledge.
•        To help in the construction of theories and the general progress of humans
PROCESS OF CARRYING OUT AN ACADEMIC RESEARCH
•        IDENTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The research starts with some broad and sometimes rather vague and tentative problem or some questions which need to be answered. These questions usually represent some gaps in knowledge which need to be filled. At this stage, the problem may not have ben stated in a scientific fashion or in a form which is amenable to scientific investigation.
•        STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
At this stage, there researcher translates the research problem into a scientific problem.  A scientific statement of the problem involves stating the problem or question in a way that clearly indicates that the questions can be answered by appeal to evidence. This means that we can gather and analyse data to answer the question in a way which minimises the chances of bias or error. For instance we may state a problem thus: Are male staffs more industrious than female staffs?
•        RELATING THE PROBLEM TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE
This is also known as literature review. This is based on three conditions:
•        The researcher makes only a marginal contribution to existing knowledge at a time
•        By doing so, he builds on what other authorities have contributed and therefore must relate his work to such earlier contribution.
•        The researcher must be up to date with earlier works in related area if not he may end up repeating what has been done before. Literature review involves a careful examination of earlier contributions both in terms of existing theories and conceptual formulations, previous research findings and existing methodologies for answering questions similar to the one being investigated.    
•        FORMULATION OF TENTATIVE ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
On the basis of existing theories and previous studies, the researcher can proffer tentative answers to his research questions. Such tentative answers which are subject to verification are called hypotheses. For instance a researcher can put up a hypotheses based on the earlier example as follows: Male staffs are more industrious than female staffs.
•        DATA COLLECTION
In order to answer our research questions, we need data. And this data will also be used to test the hypotheses. This means that we need to verify whether the data relating to the phenomenon being studied supports or negates the validity of the hypotheses.
•        DATA ANALYSIS AND TESTING OF HYPOTHESES
This stage of the research involves relating the data or evidence gathered to the research questions raised. The only two options that can emerge from the hypotheses testing is that the data may support or may not support the hypotheses.
•        REPORT OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS
The essence of a research will be defeated if the findings of it are not freely communicated. The researcher has to report the detailed results of his research efforts as well as the procedure or methodology used. It is such free communication of results that make literature review possible.
•        GENERALIZATION
It is expected that the researcher will relate his research findings to existing knowledge. This may result in the construction of new theories or the revision or refinement of existing ones