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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 79  |  5016 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Water is a clear, colourless, testless and odorless liquid that is essential for life. Water is among the natural resources that occupies 708 of the earth surface (Willy et al, 2008). The human body needs about three to four litres of water per day for its normal functions. Apart form drinking and body functions, man needs water for various purposes including for use in transportation, recreation, water disposal, hydroelectric system (Onyeagba and Isu 2009). Watear is a good solvent and is often reffered to as the universal solvent. It is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them.

Ultraviolent and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Chemically, water is made up of two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen in the ratio 2:1 the boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, at the top of mount. Everest water boils at 680C (1540F) compared to 1000C (2120F) at the sea level conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vets can reach temperature of hand reds or degrees and remains liquid. Water has the second highest molar specific of any known substance, after ammonia, as well as high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ mol-1). Both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules these two unusual by buffering large fluctuation in temperature. Water plays a critical role in regulating body temperature, it carries nutrients throughout the body, it improves digestion, it eliminates waste and toxins from the body.

The total amount of water in the body of an average adult is 37 litres, human brains are 75% water, human bones are 25% water, human blood is 83% water. Water needs to be continuously replaced since, on average, 250ml is lost on a daily basis through breathing alone. By drinking an adequate amount of water each day at least 8 glasses/ 2 litres, you can ensure that your body has all it needs to maintain good health, of course, your fluid needs might be double or even triple that amount when you work out for more than an hour in the heart. Water suppresses the appetite naturally and helps the body metabolize stored fat. Incredible as it may seem, water is quite possible the single. Most important catalyst in losing weight and keeping it off. Studies have shown that a decrease in water intake will cause fat deposits to increase, while an increase in water intake can actually reduce fat deposits.

The kidneys can’t function properly without enough water. When they don’t work to capacity, some of their load is dumped onto the liver. One of the liver’s primary functions is to metabolize stored fat into usually energy for the body. Water can help relieve constipation, when the body gets too little water, it siphons what it needs from internal sources which the colon is one primary functions. But when a person drinks enough water normal bowel function usually returns. In order of importance, air, water and food are the three main’s necessities of life. A person can survive fro a mouth without food, about a week, without water and less than five minutes without air. The provision of an adequate supply of safe drinking water was of the eight components of primary health care 1918. Increase in human population have exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water especially in areas of developing.

Countries in the ear of colonialism in Nigeria. Water was supplied to the public free by the government. But Nigeria has moved form a mixed to capitalist economy. In cities and towns today, water now attracts rates and fees with insufficient governments supply private sector participation has evolved and the idea of packaged drinking water popularly referred as “pure water” is now a common phenomenon in eh country. Drinking water is now commercially packed in easy to open 50-60ml polyethene sacs and is referred to as “sachet water”. This packed water is cheap and convent and have increasingly become popular. Arising from the abuse of its production leading to a situation whereby the pure. Although there is death of documentation of data in incidence rate. It has been widely observed that the advent of pure water has significantly increase the case of samonelosis and typhoid fever in recent years.

Water pollution has continue to generate unpleasant implication. For health and economic development in Nigeria (Adelegan 2004). There are several files and regulations for drinking water. In Nigeria, such regulations are monitored by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) which was established by decree No. 15 of 1993 surveillance carried out by NAFDAC between 2004 and 2005 revealed that some producers of packed water indulge in share practices such as a packaging of untreated water, production under unhygienic conditions, illegal production of unregistered water in unapproved premises, use of non-food grade sachets and release of packed water for distribution and sale without data masking, these malpractices completed the agency to formulate guidelines for the production of wholesome packaged water.

However, deposit the policies formulated by public and internal agencies to address this problems, the situation in Nigeria seems degenerating and therefore demands increase attention in order to effectively solve the problem. However; there is need to fully asses the extent of the problem and it causes. Drinking water regulation require that potable water on human consumption be free from human diseases. Causing bacterial and specific of these pathogenic (Listw 1993). This does not mean that drinking water should be sterile, some bacterial are classified as pathogens. Examples of bacterial pathogens and their related diseases (dysenteric) and lagionella pnenophilia (legconneaire’s disease) this study was therefore aimed at investigating the incidence of pathogenic organisms in sachet packed drinking water sold in Aba, Abia State.

For studies (Olayemi, 2007; Adekunle et al, 2003; Asheye et al; 2001; Gyang et al; 2008) have been conducted in recent years on the quality of packaged water in Nigeria. These focused primarily on the end-product, leaving out the processes that determine the final rate of the package water, as well as the people (various stakeholders involved) in whose hands the will power to effect the desire changes consequently, practicable recommendations aimed at changing the statusquo have not yet emerged. This study set out to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water in sachets, to identify contributory factors that determine the fate of the packaged water product as it moves form catchment to consumers, and to highlight unharnessed opportunities for policy improvement that would allow for sustained and improved regulation of the sachet water industry.

 

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SACHET WATER

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