URBAN DYNAMICS AND CRIME CONTROL
This research is essentially a descriptive one bearing in mind that peevishly and work has gone in to issues of crime in urban areas. If often assumed that urban areas are synonyms with crime and that the more an area becomes urban the more the rate of crime increases. It is against this background that this research is premised. We should know that the dynamics of urbanization can cause rapid changes in the rate of crime in an area. Also its evaluation of the efficiency of the police as a major form of crime control (both in reporting and curbing crime) was carried out. Our case study is Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State commonly which is experiencing rapid urbanization due to the presence of offices, shopping complexs, presidential houses, school, Eateries and cafes. Since our research is descriptive in nature we made reference to a lot of secondary data we collected data in the form of crime statistics. An evaluation of crime cases document from 1997-2007 was carried out. Also we interviewed some residents of the community by asking their perception of policing in the area and also their view on alternative means of crime control (vigilante groups, night watchmen etc.).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Urbanization dynamics with the physical power and forces of pulling a large number of people to become permanently concentrated in a relatively small area of forming cities as a result of large number of people migrating in search of greener pasture (Crowe, 2000).
The advent of industrilazation marks a great turn in human resistence, it being the acecendent that has brought tremendrous in every aspect of human social life the dividend of industrialization is double faceted, one of which is being pivotal in the development or economics, attainment of political poer and general changes in socil cultural life, industrial area are often view as the epitome of good living attrate a high inflow of people in search of green pasture. However industrialzation is a major cause of the myriad of social problem that have been plug in human societies to this crime which is one of major social problem that pervate our society is quite pertinent to tthe study.
For the decades researchers have carried out studies on the incidence of crime. They hyave attempted to explain why crime ismore prevalent in certain place that others. In concordiance with this, studies have often speculated that crime is predominant in urban areas, however the features aligns with urban areas show that they have intendency to have more frequent occurences of crime. Features such as the high population, the high level of inequalities, interogeneous natures of the resisdent. The social control mechanism among others. The field or sociology has been termed urban crime studies. It invovle the scientific study of crime in urban-area and stretches across measuring the frequncies of crime cases in urban area using available data provided by statistics agencies or police report, the demographic features such as population size and density. The immigration/emmigration and then the socio-economic and culture factors. The factors mentioned are instrumented in aiding researchers view the pattren of an area assuming status and the seemingly proportionate level of crime.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Urban life is usually depicted with negativity stemming from the words of red field urban sociology thus assumption cannot be regarded as far-fetched. The social relationship in urban areas can almost be set at zero tolerance.individuls are tooengroossed in securig there basic needs and any other activity is deemed as secondary.the problem of crime in urban sociologies as adispline.urban residents live with crime every day,from non violence oriented crimes like rape,armd robbery and murder.also the indiscriminate use of hard drug is becoming quite habitual among the young people in the urban areas.with these mentiond,the question then ariess that are there no way in which crime in urban ares can be checked? In rural systems social control mechanism are mainly informled in nature (though there are still formal mechanism present) since rural communites are very homogeneous individals can be deterred from crime when they are aware that someone close to them might discover any acts of crime they commits. That is the closely larit relationship such as immediate family members, the extended family and the other kinsmen acting as a third eye and at the same time serving as a check on their activities.
However in urban area the reverse is the case, the heterogeneous nature of the resident caused by a near obsessive drive to achieve the mainstream valves ( which is the acquisition of wealth was diminishes any aspect or this informal fform of social control and even if there was it would be as it’s most minimal.
The control of crime is now left to the formal agents or social control, which is mainly the police. The primary priority of the police is to secure and protect the lives and property of the citizens. A rather rhetoric question can then proposed, “how far have the police gone in fighting and cubing crime to a considerable level?” this question can be regardedas rhetoric considering the fact that the police in some cases are the prepetrators of the problem in question crime. They have been know to carry out their jutics in streaks of violence (reffered to as police brutality) extorting the populace and forming alliances with criminal gangs.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The set of question will be the foundation on which this research will be build on. The question will serve as a guide in reaching the goal of the study urbanizes?
1. Is there a proportion increase in crime rate as an area urbanizes?
2. Why is crime more prevalent in urban area?
3. What are the perception of the urban residents of the police on safe-guarding life and property?
4. Are there any alternatives measures (a part from the police) for reducing crime in urban areas.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research is essentially a descriptive one, bearing in mind that previously a bit of extensive research has gone onto the issue of crime in urban areas. It is assumed that urban areas are synonymous with crime and that the more reason an area becomes the level of crime increases. We shall attempt to have a more lucid perspective of this, simulating with the “Ibara” community of abeokuta south local government as our study area. The following will be the objective of this work;
Our first objective will be aimed at showing a relationship between the rapids urbanization of an area an a relative increase in crime.
Secondly to ascertain the effectiveness of the polic in reporting and controlling crime in Ibara.
Thirdly to find out of the resident of Ibara on crime control bynthe local police force.
Fourthlyin the view of the depredating standard in the control of crime by the police we intend to find out if the adoption of non-formal forms of crime control by the residents are effective.
Finally we shall be procuring solution to the stated problems.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Since there is endless rise in the rate in the rate of urbanizing areas which would invariably cause a rise in crime. This reseach will give us a better understanding on the intricacies surrounding crime as regards to urban growth. In essence as an area assumes urban status more measure will be put in place to cub the already anticipated increase in crime.It will help to redress the lukewarm nature through which the police reports and flight crime. It proper documentation of crime is more concentrated also the frequency of reported crime would help the police know how much manpower and time would be neededed for more effective crime fighting.
Finally the research aims to shows the importance of alternative methods of cubing crime such as vigilante groups.
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