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CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF TRAFFIC LIGHHT

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 61  |  704 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF TRAFFIC LIGHT

 

ABSTRACT

Virtually in all human endeavors, there is always an element of control. Even our behavioral patterns and manner of interactions are either internally or externally guided for a meaningful life appreciation. Control then is necessary especially when something poses a danger or get to excesses. In cities today, the increase of road transportation traffic congestion at strategic junction has made it absolutely important to look beyond using traffic wardens or timely controlled traffic lights to direct vehicles at the junction crossings. However, traffic light control system used in many cites at present are still pre-timed. They allocate specific time sequence to any period of operation by directing traffic “STOP”, “get ready to stop” and “Go” according to the determined time duration. But the method of control embarked on here is the predictive type. This system through the use of motion detectors, count the numbers of cars passing through a particular lane for a given period of time. With the data gathered which is displayed using a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), the traffic condition of a road can be known and forecasted. The first chapter discusses the statement of the problem and the objectives. A literature review is done in chapter two while in chapter three, the requirement and design analysis are discussed. Chapter four is the testing of the project and recommendations are given in the last chapter of this report.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In many places where heavy traffic can be a problem, measures are introduced to try and ease the pressure on the roads to aid the flow of traffic around the road system. Some of the methods used involve: traffic lights, roundabouts, one-way systems and more dramatically bypasses which in this case helps in completely avoiding the problem areas. Traffic lights are often used at junctions or road intersections to aid the flow of traffic from different directions. The purpose of the lights is clear and the theory behind them is to minimize the time spent on the road; meaning that at a particular junction, vehicles should regularly flow through, minimizing the queue build up in any of the lane. In practice this is a different matter; multiple sets of traffic lights are often in sequence, affecting the flow of vehicles from one to the next. The key to obtaining the optimum traffic flow is to adjust the timings of the traffic lights at the junctions so that the whole block is in a sequence with each other. Another viewpoint of the traffic flow problem is how the vehicles on the road interact with each other and with the control measures such as roundabouts and traffic lights. The individual actions of a vehicle can affect the smooth flow originally intended from the road design. For example, changing lanes in heavy traffic can mean that one lane cannot move forward even though the road is clear ahead because of stationary traffic.

When considering an appropriate model for representing the situation, we have developed a system that do not only control the flow of vehicles in a particular intersection of a road or junction but also helps in presenting an option to road users on an alternative path to take to avoid traffic jams by predicting the traffic condition of a particular route at a particular time through the use of infrared sensor.

A traffic signal, or stoplight as it is also known, controls vehicle traffic passing through the intersection of two or more roadways by giving a visual indication to drivers when to proceed, when to slow, and when to stop. Gordon, R.L. (2003). In some cases, traffic signals also indicate to drivers when they may make a turn. These signals may be operated manually or by a simple timer which allows traffic to flow on one roadway for a fixed period of time, and then on the other road-way for another fixed period of time before repeating the cycle. Other signals may be operated by sophisticated electronic controllers that sense the time of day and flow of traffic to continually adjust the sequence of operation of the signals. Traffic engineers use signals to avoid traffic congestion and improve safety for both motorists and pedestrians alike.

The ability to predict traffic conditions is important for optimal control. For example, if we would know that some road will become congested after some time under current conditions, this information could be transmitted to road users that can circumvent this road, thereby allowing the whole system to relieve from congestion. Furthermore, if we can accurately predict the consequences of different driving strategies, an optimal (or at least optimal for the predicted interval) decision can be made by comparing the predicted results. The simplest form of traffic prediction at a junction is by measuring traffic over a certain time, and assuming that conditions will be the same for the next period. One approach to predicting is presented in this project via the use of Infrared transmitter to detect the vehicles passing through the road thereby counting it through a microcontrolled program and simultaneously displaying its results.

The proposal for this paper is to look into this claim and investigate the effects traffic lights have on the flow of traffic. After a field assessment of the problems faced by road users in selected locations in Uyo, A model has been constructed to show this and new improvements from the traditional electronic relay and traffic warden used in controlling road traffic. Also, we have introduced arrow light which will address the issue of undue time wasting by vehicles waiting to make a turn without obstructing the flow of traffic.

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