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PERCEPTION OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE ON STUDENTS BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was conducted to find out the perception of drug use and abuse on student’s behavior in public secondary schools in Lagos State.
Chapter one presented the background of study which consists of statement of the problem, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, purpose of the study, delimitation, limitations as well as definition of term. Review of related literature was carried out in chapter two on the prevalence of drug use and abuse among Nigeria student, types of drug abuse, cause of drug abuse, signs and symptoms of drug abuse, effect of drug abuse, theories of drug abuse. Chapter three discusses the methods and procedures employed for the study, the chapter covered areas such as research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument validity and reliability of the instrument, data collection data analysis pilot study. Chapter four presents data analysis and discussion of findings, data collected was analysed and processed through the use of chi-square (x2) statistics with 3 degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance for hypothesis were rejected and therefore significant while one hypothesis was accepted and therefore not significant.
Based on the findings the following recommendations were made
1. Adequate and effective guidance and counselling department should be made available in all public secondary schools in Lagos State.
2. Adequate medical facilities should be provided for emergencies, the medical history of all students registered into the schools should be recorded.
3. Lagos State government should organize part-time vocational studies for students in public secondary school so as to prevent boredom and to enhance he development of their skills.
4. The students should only be allowed to watch movies that are under parental guidance (PG).
5. The school authorities should ensure that no student is frustrated due to the inability to perform well in class and meet expected standards.
6. The community and parents should live according to expected moral standards in order to influence the young positively as they imitate the elders in all manners.
7. The ministry of Education should ensure that drugs cannot be within reach of the students easily, the assumption is that if the substance is easily accessible the motivation to abuse becomes higher than if it was hard to get.
Background of the study
The abuse of drugs constitutes one of the most important risk taking behaviour among adolescents and young adults in secondary schools. Despite worldwide concern and education about psychoactive substances, self medication and misuse of illicit drugs, many adolescents have limited awareness of their adverse consequence.
Drug use is as old as the history of human race people have used herbs, roots, barks, leaves and all kinds of plant to relieve pain and help control disease. When drugs are properly administered, they become a blessing to human beings. It should, however, be noted that some drugs unfortunately produce enticing side effects such as a sense of feeling good, elation serenity and power such that what began as means of relaxation evolved in time into a problem of dependence and abuse. (Karechrio,1996). Drug can be defined as a substance that is purposely introduced into the body to change normal body functions. Drug abuse explains the persistent excessive use of chemicals or substance for any reason other than its acceptable medical purpose. The influence of drugs is on the students behavior has been documented. Kaire (2005), noted that drug abuse have been identified as a major cause of unrest in public secondary school leading to poor performance in exams and mass drop outs of students from secondary schools.
Tabifor (2000), explains that drug addiction creates an enabling environment for violence as it gives the abuser a false sense of greatness and power. Curiosity, social pressure and peer group influence are reported to be primary reasons for substance misuse. Most often the student of public secondary schools starts by experimenting with the so called “GATEWAYDRUGS” such as tobacco, alcohol and marijuana. Drug abuse also refers to the use of usually self administration or any drug in a manner that deviate from approved medical; pattern or with a given culture, in which cause the use of medically prescribed drugs such as barbiturate to induce Dulphoria in social situation would be abuse on drugs. Drugs mainly abused as stimulant like Amphamine sedative and tranquilizers like Barbiturates, Valium and Mandrase Hauvelnogens. These drugs do not only have mild altering capacity but they may often be harmful.
The world drug report (2011), reports that a total 0f 190 million people consume drugs and alcohol world wide and the majority of these are youths. Bennet.et al, 1991 observes that alcohol, tobacco and marijuana are the most common consumed substances by the adolescent (boys and girls) across the globe. Njuki (2004), maintains that there are many issues confronting Africa such as drug abuse which is not looked at with the seriousness it deserves. He observed that illicit drug-trafficking and drug abuse are increasing in Africa. Cannabis, methaqualone, heroin and alcohol are included among drugs used across the continent of Africa, Moreover, the injection of heroin has caused heightened concern as intravenous drug use assists in the continued spread of HIV/AIDS (Njuki , 2004). Ministry of Education (1996), made strategies in order to promote the boy’s and girls health ad their well being. They introduced regular health check in all schools and the prevention of drugs and alcohol use In its institution. Further, the ministry of Education has established guidance and counseling departments in schools which deal with cases of guiding and counseling the learners when they fail victims of unwanted behaviours (Ministry of Education, 1996).
In Nigeria, earlier studies on students drug use were largely hospital based and confined to selected regions of the country however, in the past 10 - 15 years such studies have taken the form of field work employing epidemiology techniques so as to provide more comprehensive information related to types, pattern of use and psycho-social correlates in drug use and abuse among secondary school students. From such studies it has been consistently found the alcohol, hypnosedatives, tobacco and psycho stimulants were the commonly abused substances with varying prevalence rates found for both overall and specific drug use. For instance in Ilorin, Nigeria, the lifetime prevalence rate if drug use among secondary students was found to vary between 1.5% (for tobacco and 57% for psycho stimulants). In Sokoto, the reported prevalence rates were 10.9% - 17.8% among secondary school students and 19.5% - 50.7%. some authors in the country have raised the possibility of students under reporting their substance use habits, most especially the illicit ones for instance in a study in south west, Nigeria it was observed that although cannabis related psychiatric disorders are common among students in Nigeria psychiatric clinics, substance use studies in the country have reported low use of cannabis amongst secondary school students. This could be due to denial because of legal consequence associated with its use.
Lagos, the former capital of Nigeria remains about the most populous city in the country and since the work of anymonys over 3 decades ago, changes that could increase the risk of substance use among school students have occurred these include a surge in population, increased numbers of street youths (mostly secondary school drop outs) popularly known as “area boys” and an attendant high crime rate. However, despite these persistent psychosocial problems in lagos, there is a paucity of current literature available on drug use among secondary school students in the city.
This study sets out to assess drug use and abuse on students behavior in public secondary schools in Lagos state. To find out types of drug and when a drug is said to be abused. Highlight some of cause of drug use and abuse, it effects on the public secondary school students.
Statement of the Problem
Recent events in the attitude of students in secondary schools show that abnormal behaviour are the aftermath of the students on drugs. The truancy rate, absenteeism, cultism act, hooliganism, bullying is rampant in these cadre or schools. Public secondary schools engage themselves in school to school street fighting and the researcher wonder the impact of drugs
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between drug use and abuse on students behaviour.
The following research question will be formulated for this study
1. Will drug abuse influence gangsterism among secondary school students?
2. Will drug abuse affect the health of students in secondary schools?
3. Will drug abuse cause students to exhibit violent behaviour?
4. To what extent will self medication affect the health of students in secondary schools?
5. Will drug abuse contribute to hooliganism in secondary schools?
The following research hypotheses were tested in this study.
1. Drug abuse will not significantly influence gangsterism among secondary school students.
2. Drug abuse will not significantly affect the health of students in secondary schools.
3. Drug abuse will not significantly cause students to exhibit violent behaviours in secondary schools.
4. Self medication will not significantly affect the health of students in secondary schools.
5. Drug abuse will not significantly contribute to hooliganism among secondary school students.
Significance of the Study
1. The findings of this study might provide public secondary schools in Lagos State with the knowledge on the effects of drug use and abuse on student behaviour.
2. This study might help in increasing the awareness on how drug abuse affects the health of the students and individuals.
3. The findings from this study might enlighten the students and teachers on the effects of self medications, drug misuse and the usefulness of prescribed drugs.
Delimitation of the Study
This original scope of this study is very wide due to the large number of public secondary schools in Lagos state but it has been delimited to some selected public schools in Yaba and Shomolu local government area which are CMS Girls Grammar School, Lagos City College Yaba, Lagos, Onike Junior Girls High School, Wesley Girls High School and Akoka Junior High School .
The use of questionnaire, the survey method was adopted for the study, the inferential statistical of chi square (x2)
Limitations of the Study
Refusal of some students in answering the questionnaire pose a threat to the study but through persuasion they responded.
Definitions of terms
Drug: Refers to a substance rather than food that is purposely introduced into the body to change normal body function.
Drug Abuse: Persistent excessive use of chemical or substance for any reason other than its acceptable medical purpose
Guidance and Counseling: The process used by guidance and counseling teaches to help students avoid evils like drug abuse and live responsible life in secondary schools.
Illegal Drugs: Any drug that the government considers harmful to the mental and physical health of the society the use of such a drug is forbidden by law, these include bhang, heroine, cocaine etc.
Legal drugs: Refers to any drugs that is potentially dangerous but is not against the law to consume and distribute them.
Peer pressure: This is the demand to confirm to the values and standards of the peer (classmates, age mates).
Prevalence: frequency at which the drugs are used in the sample schools.
Preventive Approaches: Refers to guidance and counseling programmes put in place by the counseling department to create drug awareness about the disadvantages of drug abuse so as to discourage student from indulging on drug abuse and this reduce occurrence of student behavior.
Preventive education: The deliberate use of educational procedures with the purpose of tackling the issue of drug abuse and its negative effects.
Risk taking: Engaging in behavior that endangers the health or life of a student.
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