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THE IMPORTANCE OF PACKAGING AS A TOOL FOR IMPLEMENTING A COMPANY MARKETING PROGRAMMES
The purpose of set up a business is to achieve set objective. To achieve objective, a lot of activities are involved such as packaging, promotion, pricing, planning e. t. c packaging as one of the business activities has contributed to business growth through aiding in product promotion, protection, segmentation, convenience (handy), economy etc. Most products would have been difficult to sell or handle without packaging. It forms the integral part of a product which the consumers refer as the entire product. With the aid of this project organization, individuals are help to understand why packaging is a vital business activity. The work is designed to identify the problems, importance and why a company should package its products. It also enable organization to know types of packaging, packaging techniques, features of packaging, e. t. c the study is aimed at critically evaluating the importance of packaging as a tool for implementing accompany marketing programmes. Chapter one of this study is a general introduction to the topic while chapter two view some previous work on the subject matter. Chapter three is an outline of the various techniques and the methodology employed in the study. Chapter four covers the analysis, presentation and testing of relevant data. Finally recommendation and conclusion are drawn.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Packaging is a very important aspect of the product mix. It is conspicuously apparent in the fact that the physical product will not have been without it. Packaging is as important as the product itself, perhaps, this is why McCarthy (1978) assorted that in some cases the packaging decision may be more important than the physical product decision.
Packaging creates benefit in terms of protection, promotion, convenience, segmentation, economy, etc it helps to protect the product from deterioration. A good packaging design is good for impute buyer.
According to station (1980), packaging is the general group of activities in producing the container or wrapper of a product. It is about all activations that combine several operations and enables the producer of a product to deliver a finished or near finished product to a selling organization of a final consumers.
A packaging can range from the simple cellophane paper used to rap up plantain chips to a sophisticated colorful cardboard carton for cameras and television sets and computer. In the ancient time, leaves, earthen-ware and shells probably made up the earliest forms of packaging.
For packaging to make effective contribution to a company goals, it needs intelligent leadership, top management support and the support of every department as well as members of the organization.
The important of packaging cannot be over emphasis, the package of a company product bear communicate the image of the company to the public. In Nigeria today, salesmen package them selves to gain acceptance from the customer.
How will you feel seeing a young man pushing a cart full of apples, neat trousers and a tie to match? Fancy it?
Well, that is his own of selling apples. You will not be surprised seeing the high and mighty stopping over to buy from him. You are how you present (packages) your self. If a customer wart to buy from you, he will first have to buy the image you package. You package yourself if you want to succeed.
The man and women, who succeed in this contemporary world today, are not really those who know it, but they are those who package themselves properly.
There are three levels of packages-primary package, secondary package and the shipping package. This will be discuss in the later chapter today, due to the important role packaging play some authors make bold to call it another variable of the marketing mix (product, promotion place, price). Various factors account for the growing recognition of packaging as an independent and potent selling tools.
Such factors are self-service, consumer affluence company and brand image and innovation opportunity, these will be discuss in the later chapters.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
All companies have one objective or another pursue it might be profit or survival in order to achieve these objectives, companies involved in packaging which help to facilitate the achievement of these objectives.
A cursory look at the entire business reveal that not much have been done or said on how to boost formulated programmes for more effectiveness. It is this reason that arouse the interest of this researcher to carryout his project.
Hence the problem of this study put in the question from, is of what importance is packaging as a tool for the implementation of a company marketing programme?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of carrying out his study includes identifying the role which packaging plays in implementing a company marketing programmes.
To look or determine how efficiently to employ packages as a strategy in achieving organization goals to help at the problem that associated with packaging in an organization.
To help suggest the ways to solve the problem. To stimulate interest for organization to package their product.
This objective is expected to generate employment opportunities to many Nigeria as well as to enhance the living standard of so many Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
To avoid a blind search and irrelevant gathering of data, the following hypotheses have been carefully formulated.
Hi: Packaging is a tool -for implementing a company marketing programme.
Ho: Packaging is not a tool for implementing company marking programme.
Hi: Effective packaging contribute to the higher sales volume of a product.
Ho: Effective packaging has no contribution to the higher sales volume of a product.
Hi: Packaging facilitate the promotion of a product.
Ho: Packaging does not facilitate promotion of a product.
1.5 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
Since packaging help to stimulate the demand for a product, Increase Company soles volume, protect the product from deterioration, storage, self affluence etc, it study is relevance to study. Most organization see packaging as an expensive activities that can erode the profit of a product. They so concern them selves with this without viewing the economic importance of packages.
Packaging help to sustain demand or increase the demand for a product in ardent of price increase. A well colorful package product communicate the image of an organization.
Those who have the need to employ packaging as a tool for achieving organization goal, lack the knowledge of implementing it efficiently and effectively. It is the relevance of this study to educate such person how to implement packaging as a tool for implementing organizational objectives. Most products could not be conveniently sold without packaging such as liquid, power; etc with the power of packaging, this problem is over come. In the three level of a product-core product, tangible product, augmented product, tangible product is the most important.
Having highlighted a bit of packaging objectives, the study is therefore relevant so as to create room for suggestion as to the packaging strategies to be employed by marketer to increase performance.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is limited to the study of packaging method/activities adopted by marketer such as;
• Developing packaging
• Types of packaging
• Nature of packaging
• Importance of packaging
• Planning packaging strategies
• Problem and criticism of packaging
Making suggestion for the possible way of solving such problems.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Alot of factors hindered the efficiency of this project. In carrying out this project work, the researcher encountered several constraints and limitation which are worth mentioning in this chapter. Among such limitations are as follows: lack of co-operations some of the respondents show lack of co-operation in answering the questions in the questionnaire. Secrecy: due to unwillingness of some respondents attitude to disclose some vital information limit the success of this project.
Illiteracy: some of the respondent in the sample size of this project are illiterate. For the researcher to read the questionnaire to their hearing and explain it to them amount to a percentage level of basic influence or bias.
Academic activities combining this project work with other academic work under a given period results to low level of incompetence of this project. Finally, to a greater extent, finance contributors to the limitation of this study. Although there was a budget for the project but due to environmental changes, the budget was not enough.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms as going to be use in this study as define below:
The definition by koti er (2003) will serve our purpose. It sees a “product as anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a want or need.
Marketing planning has been variously defined Kelly (1972) defined it as an integrative process that blends corporate goal and resources with information on external opportunities.
Brand: It involves all activities used to identify the product of one firm and to differentiate them from that of competitions.
Brand: Is a mane, term, symbol of elements, that is intended to identify the goods a service of one seller or a group of seller and to differentiate them from one another
Labeling: This is a pent of packaging that consist of printed information that describe the product, appearing on or with package.
Packaging: This is the product feature that is design in form wrapper of container for a product, or an activity that combine several operations and enable the producer to deliver the product to the consumer.
Package: Is the wrapper or container that carry the product.
Trade Mark: A broad that been giving legal protection, granted solely the owner of the product
Advertising:- Is a paid form of non-personal promotion or presentation of product, service, idea by an identified sponsor
Promotion: It is a communication of information between seller and buyer with a view to information attitude and behaviour” (BUZZED 1975).
Marketing:- According to Kotler (1976)” is a human activity direct at satisfying needs and want through exchange process”
Markets: They are the potential buyer of a product. They are those who have a need to satisfy, select a product to satisfy this need and having the purchasing power to acquire the product.
Demand : This is a the quantities of a product a consumer is willing to buy and having the purchases power to buy it as a stated price over a given period of times
Product: Is any thing that can be offer to market for attention, use or consumption that can satisfy a want or need.
It is any thing both favourable and unfavourable, tangible or intangible, attract attention, acquisition, use or consumption that include packaging, colour, price, manufacturer and retailer services which the buyer may accept a offering want satisfaction
Packaging Planning:- Is the act of making decision in advance on how to produce a package for the package of each product economically.
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