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This study was carried out to examine the influence of pollution on the health of female factory workers. Specifically, the study sought to discover the sources of pollution is the selected factories and how it affects the female factory workers. The study adopted the survey descriptive methodology and enrolled a total of 250 respondents in the survey. Responses received and analysed showed that the various sources of pollution includes Chemical vapour and smoke, Burning waste in the open, Exhaust from engines, oil and sewage and solid waste. Further findings reveals that pollution from the factories affects fertility of female factory workers. Also, the findings shows that pollution from the factory pose a huge foetal risk for female factory workers. Hence at .000 the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate hypothesis was accepted which states that Pollution pose a fertility and foetal risk for female factory workers. The study recommend that Chemical companies ought to demonstrate a chemical is protected before it is sold or utilized. Also, Companies and governments must assume liability for chemical substances in use and lastly, a chemical compound should just be supplanted by a more secure substance, not by another harmful one.




Background to the study

By definition, pollution is destructive—a lot of something in an inappropriate spot. In fitting amounts, some past poisons are advantageous. Phosphates and other plant supplements are basic to amphibian life; a lot of these supplements, nonetheless, and eutrophication results. Carbon dioxide in the environment assists keep the earth sufficiently warm to be livable, yet the development of huge amounts of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use and different sources presently takes steps to change the planet's atmosphere. Different toxins, similar to dioxin and P.C.B.s, are harmful to the point that even the most moment present wellbeing risks, for example, malignant growth and conceptive hindrance. Arrivals of toxins to the earth are regularly the easygoing result of some valuable movement, for example, generating electricity or raising cows. Pollution of this sort is a type of garbage removal. It happens when the monetary expenses of killing the pollution surpass the financial advantages, at any rate the advantages to the polluter—a computation generally slanted for pollution since the air and streams have been treated as free removal destinations. Be that as it may, arrivals of toxins can likewise be intentional, similarly as with pesticides, where biocidal substances are delivered into the earth to receive monetary benefits, or unplanned, as in oil slicks, where the polluters themselves endure misfortune.

Pollution is traditionally categorized in several ways—by getting media, sources, kinds of toxins, and impacts. Maybe the most standard pollution classifications are those that attention on the accepting media: air (emanations), water (effluents), and land (dumps and removals). A marginally more modern breakdown would recognize inland and marine waters, surface and groundwater, troposphere and stratosphere, and maybe we should now include space also, given the satellite and different flotsam and jetsam gathering out there.

Most discussion and regulation of pollution is built around these categories, however concern is moving progressively to between media impacts, for example, the fermentation of lakes and streams brought about via air pollution or the removal ashore or in the expanse of slimes and different residuals from air-and water-pollution control measures. While open consideration frequently centers around industry, practically all parts of present day life are makers of pollution: families, horticulture and ranger service, and government, just as industry and trade.

Our affluent households create gigantic volumes of trash and other strong waste, fluid sewage, and debilitates from our vehicles and trucks. As of late, pollution from agribusiness has pulled in expanded consideration. By certain measures, agribusiness is currently the biggest wellspring of poison loadings to streams and lakes. Soil particles, composts, pesticides, creature squanders, salts, and different substances that wash into streams from horticulture cost Nigerians millions of Naira yearly (Conservation Foundation 1987).

While responsibility for pollution is widespread, two human exercises merit uncommon note: our dependence on petroleum derivatives, the ignition of which offers ascend to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, hefty metals, and particulates; and our dependence on the concoction and metals businesses, which are connected legitimately and in a roundabout way to pollution from pesticides, engineered natural synthetics, manures, weighty metals, and the age of unsafe squanders. Most pollutions are of concern due to their synthetic movement, regardless of whether it be poisonous consequences for living life forms or harm to structures and consumption of metal. Be that as it may, there are numerous assortments of non-compound pollution—eminent mainly on account of their physical impacts—including radiation, both ionizing and nonionizing; warm pollution; infrared catching; clamor; water-borne and different microbes; sediment, garbage, and different strong squanders; and tasteful pollution, including scents and perceivability debilitation. It is standard to consider pollution to affect the well-being of individuals especially factory workers who spend most of their working lives in the factory inhaling and exhaling harmful substances. The situation can be more disastrous for women. The genuine medical issues caused by pollution ranges from cancer, respiratory disease and lots of similar infections.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Workers health is an essential condition for household income, productivity and economic development. This implies that restoring and maintaining work capacity is an important function of health services. Health pollution, such as heat, noise, dust, hazardous chemicals, unsafe machinery, and psychological stress, can cause occupational diseases and exacerbate other health problems. This is unsafe for workers, especially women with complex anatomical conditions. It is also recognized that employment conditions, job description and positions in the workplace hierarchy also affect the health of workers. Chronic respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, noise-induced hearing loss, and skin problems are the most common occupational diseases caused by factory pollution. However, WHO (2018) shows that only one-third of countries have programs to address these issues.

Work-related non-communicable diseases(NCD), as well as cardiovascular disease and depression caused by pollution, result in increasing long-term illness and subsequent deaths. Non-communicable diseases that can be caused by pollution includes occupational cancer, chronic bronchitis, and asthma.Despite these diseases, in most countries doctors and nurses are not adequately trained to deal with work-related health problems that arise from pollution.

The WHO estimated that outdoor air pollution causes 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide each year among the general population, including workers. In 2016, 91% of the world's population lived in places where WHO standards for air quality were not met. The main outdoor air pollutants include: (1) particulate matter - fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM10); (2) ozone (O3); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and (3) sulfur dioxide (SO2).

Air pollution in indoor workplaces is also a major concern and has traditionally been addressed by occupational health and safety regulations and programs. Sources of pollution in factories include technological processes, burning of materials and waste, cleaning, transport vehicles and internal combustion engines, heating, etc. Air pollutants in factories include a wide range of chemical substances and preparations, gases, fumes and aerosols, particles, fibers, etc. Exposure levels to pollution in factories can be much higher than outside. WHO estimates that the health effects of occupational exposure to certain air pollutants in the workplace can cause more than 860,000 deaths a year. It is against this backdrop that this study was considered to examine the influence of pollution on the health of female factory workers.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The primary goal of this study is to examine the effect of pollution on the health of female factory workers. Specifically, the study will examine:

The various sources of factory pollution in Matori Industrial Area.

The types of pollution effect on female factory workers.

The preventive measures industries could adopt to ameliorate the effect of factory pollution.

1.4 Research Questions

What are the sources of factory pollution in Matori Industrial Area?

What are the types of effect female factory workers encountered from pollution?

What preventive measures can industries adopt to ameliorate the influence of factory pollution on female workers?

1.5 Research hypotheses

H0: Pollution does not pose a fertility and foetal risk for female factory workers.

Ha: Pollution pose a fertility and foetal risk for female factory workers.

1.6 Significance of the study

The effect of pollution in factories cannot be over emphasized. This is why Safety investment is profitable to any organization that would survive for a long time alongside with its goal. This study therefore will provide insights to the dangers female factory workers are exposed to and educate them on the preventive measures to adopt.

It will also assist policy makers review the production guidelines in order to ensure the safety of workers especially female workers.

Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource material for further studies on pollution and health risk suffered by factory workers.

On the whole, this study has provided some useful insights into industrial safety programmes/policies from workers‟ attitudinal dimension for greater understanding of attitudes, safe/unsafe behaviours, industrial safety practices, and the extent to which workers‟ attitudes and perception are associated with their culture towards preventing industrial accidents. It has also added to the understanding of the implications of Nigerian cultural values on industrial safety and provided new knowledge for safety professionals in dealing with human errors that caused most of industrial accidents.

1.7 Delimitations of the study

The effect of Industrial pollution on workers health is a global problem; its alarming rate is high in developing countries than industrialized countries where adequate safety precautions are taken into consideration. For this reason, this research does not covered all but rather focus attention on Nigeria and particularly Industrial Area of Matori, Lagos state. Beside several factors that caused physical accident at workplace, this research is mainly centred on workers industrial pollution for a healthy working environment.

1.8 Operational Definition of terms

Industrial safety:- It is the management of safety activities within a certain industry for the purpose of reducing risks and injuries in a certain occupational function.

Industrial accident:- An industrial accident is a discrete occurrence of unplanned events in the course of industrial activity leading to physical or mental injury.

Workers‟ attitude:- It is mental and neutral state of readiness of workers, organized through working experience that exert influence upon the individual worker‟s response to all objects and situations with which he is related in working environment.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):- Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as "PPE", is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards. Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot and eye protection, protective hearing devices (earplugs, muffs) hard hats, respirators and full body suits.

Safety Management System (SMS):- A SMS provides a systematic way to identify hazards and control risks while maintaining assurance that these risk controls are effective.

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) also commonly referred to as Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is an area concerned with the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.



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