THE EFFECT OF OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON THE MORAL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SECRETARIES IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
A lot of employees think that their secretaries are not producing as much as they should. That they are not working up to maximum capacity where as there is room for improvement in their job performance. In order for any organization to achieve its basic objectives, it must lay strong emphasis on the way it observes the environmental factors that affect their organizations as a whole and that of the secretary in particular. Efficient performance is contingent upon the proper match between he secretary and the job on the other hand and the environmental factors or physical conditions affecting her performance on the other hand. In this research work, attempt were made to identify and analyze the good physical factors influencing secretary’s job performance. The project is divided into five chapters. Chapter one covered the general introduction, statement of problem, working hypothesis, purpose of the study scope of the study, and determination. Chapter two death with the review of related literature. To defined what is meant by good physical conditions in an office and the scope of the good physical condition that were effect expected to be seen in an office environment and the effect on the secretary’s productivity. Chapter three deals with research methodology used in obtaining the relevant data to the study. It also highlighted the sample size and the research design, the administration and development of research instrument. It highlighted the type of statistical analysis method used in analyzing the data collected as well as the validation instruments. Chapter four deals with the findings, interpretation, analysis of data collected as ell as the testing of hypothesis. He data were analyzed using the percentage method only. The study was concluded with chapter five which included summary to findings, conclusion and recommendations, limitations.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In this par of the world a careful observer would agree that it is not uncommon new that that which we refer to as good physical conditions in our working environment has always been mistaken which ought to be in our working place. To this effect one need not to wonder why entrepreneur and institutions, management has always failed in their duties to proving these basic needs to their workers. The functions of personnel management, extend to recruitment and training of workers, which the secretary is a part of. It is obvious to everybody, that the work of a secretary is very delicate and confidential, and as such, a healthy environment is necessary enable the secretary operates effectively.
A secretary whose office is equipped with communication gadgets as telephones, fax etc cooling gadgets, as fans, air conditions, fridge etc including execrative upholstery chairs and table is therefore regarded as an extra senior service worker by her unfortunate colleagues who unknowingly or out of ignorance does not know that hey deserve more than mentioned above for maximum productivity but rather retard progress thereby constitution a cry in the wheel of progress of such as establishment. An understanding of effect of office environment in enhancing the secretary’s morals is necessary in every organization, he/she is an indispensable staff and as such, management should place high priority on work motivation. This influences the amount of work, interest and happens of secretaries.
The provision of adequate and proper physical conditions in the office cannot be over emphasized. Secretaries tend to be happier when hey work in a quiet, cool and inspiring environment, but hey are unhappy and suffers from mental strain when the physical conditions are poor or inadequate. Physical conditions refer to those things in the office that enable workers to work for periods without fatigue and distraction, so that work can be carried out effectively and efficiently. It should be bone in mind that most office work is as the accounts clerks job of putting figures together or the secretary’s job and others. However, the increasing sophistication of modern office machines and self awareness towards the maintenance of a more co-operate image have resulted in management looking more critically at the environment of secretaries work place “in encyclopedia”.
The term secretary is derived from a Latin word “secrtarum” which means a confidential office. He is one ot whom secrets are entrusted and he has to maintain secrecy of the work he deals with. According to Act, 1980. sec 2 (45) states that a secretary means “one whose office is to write for another; especially one who is employed to conduct correspondence, to keep records and to transactrarions other business for another person or for a society, corporation or public body.” “Environment” in the management context consists of office building the furniture and layout, the physical conditions under which secretaries operate, lighting, ventilation, decoration, sound, proof, safety measure and so on. The influence of work environment on secretaries has become so recognized that management now calls it science of “ergonomics”.
Experience has shown that secretaries cannot be happy if the ventilation is poor. Work is likely to suffer and in accuracy would result if the lighting is poor. The noise from machine and visitors constitute a barrier to a secretary’s efficiency. Example of an ideal office should be measured with that of the secretary to director Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Enugu. All these have strong bearing on the secretary morale and work productivity. The promulgation of the office, shops and railways premises Act of 1963, is a milestone in the advancement of good working condition. Management therefore has duty of providing a comfortable environment which is pleasure and conducive.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to investigate the following;
1. The effect of the depressing and unstimulating nature of the office on the morals and productivity of the secretary.
2. The effect of he physical factors such as office surroundings on the secretary’s morals to work.
3. The importance of providing a good proper working environment for the secretary.
4. The problems caused by lack of these good physical condition on the secretary productivity.
5. Finally, to see to what extent the office environment affect the concentration of the secretary.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The secretary no doubt occupies a very important position in an organization and her inability to discharge her duties very well have an adverse effect on the image of the organization. Also a secretary’s moral boosted by the type of environment she works in. therefore, for a secretary to be able to perform her duties efficiently and effectively, she should be provided with a pleasant and conducive environment to work in. Presently, there are many problems encountered by secretaries with regards to their environment, and other facts like poor physical conditions in an office, lack of private office. Secretaries in business organization share offices with other staff. Sometimes, where one is lucky to be assigned any, there is always no privacy. In some organization, a secretary may be lucky to have a private office, but that office will be an entrance to his / her boss’s office. The study is to investigate the effect of poor conditions and lack of offices, how it affects the productivity of the secretary and find ways of enhancing her productivity.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
A lot of organizations are now aware that secretaries need to be settled comfortably in order to ensure high productivity in the organization. Much has been said and written about he best way to ensure secretary’s high job performance and many people have argued that those secretaries have to be adequately motivated in order to ensure effective job performance on their part. They outlined such motivational incentives as increase in salaries and wages, priorison of certain social amenities such as free medical facilities, ensuring effective job performance among the secretaries and workers in general. All those motivational incentives no debt facilitates high job performance among secretaries, but it depends on the environmental factors affecting the organization. The study therefore, be of immense value to the management of Nigeria Bottling Company and PZ Company Services as well as other organizations and also to the secretaries at large, especially those who do not recognize that he environment under which the organization operate will in any way affect their performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Some organization do not realize that the environment under which their business operation has anything to do with the secretary’ job performance. Their belief is that only the motivational incentives administered adequately will confluence the secretary’s job performance. This study will benefit management readers or the staff counterparts responsible for improving secretarial service operations by helping them using the items. A management can usually benefit by holding all aspects service system operations up to standard. It will also benefit future secretaries of Nigeria Bottling Company (NBC). It hoped that the management will improve the office conditions of the secretaries, so that the secretary will have cause to smile broadly and improve in their productivity. For other employers of labour, this should help them to know better how their work will fit into a production environment, and the environmental considerations that should be studied when planning for personnel includes the physical element of lighting and the whole subject of design. The result help to establish a realistic/service having a guide to management responsibilities as a background for analysis. This study will benefit both the management and secretaries to improve their productivity
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) Does the depressing and unstimulating nature of the office have negative effect on the morale and productivity of the secretaries?
2) Does the small floor space and the congested nature of the office affect the secretary’s morale and attitude to work.
3) What effect do air conditions and floor covering in most offices of the secretaries moral and work productivity?
4) What effect do lighting and ventilation have on the morals and productivity of the secretaries.
5) How does the relationship between the boss, others and the secretary affects the secretary’s environment.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SECRETARY: A secretary is the image make of any organization for without a secretary, an organization is incomplete. According to Barrister N. A. Obodo 1998 He defined secretary as an executive assistance who secretary as an executive assistance who possesses the mastery of skills, who demonstrate ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who exercise initiative and judgment, who make decision within the scope of assigned authority. In enclopedea, the term secretary is derived from a Latin word “secreterum” which means a confidential officer. He is one to whom secrets are entrusted and he has to maintain secrecy of the work he deals with.
OFFICE: In every well organized business there is the need for the record of its activities to be kept and protected. It is the office that such activities are carried out and its records kept.
The term “office” was defined firstly by Geoffery Whitehead, as a room or building where clerical processes are carried out to start, develop and control the many activities of business. Ronald Warson et al, defined the office as “the place where information is received sorted, acted upon, file and passed on”.
OFFICE ENVIRONMENT: Environment consists of the office building, its furniture and layout as well as the physical conditions under which workers do the jobs, it is also concerned with the external factors as the business which the office services, the industry or other activities within which business lies, the custom and laws of the community within which business operates. These environment factors are always changing and the office must react to change with them. When we are talking about office environment, we talk bout physical things in an environment. What you can see, something that enable you to work fine. Cleanliness of a place, or duty environment.
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