1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Rural development is a process of planned change for which one approach or the other is adopted for improvement and transformation of the rural populace. It is a process of ensuring that the poorer section of the population has some share in the fruit of the economic activity. It is the means by which the provision of social services for the rural population is combined with the promotion of economic growth.
In order to bring about real development in the rural areas, there must exist active collaboration between government, non-governmental agencies, the private sector and the rural communities themselves. Only such collective attempts can improve the quality of life of those communities and significantly reduce the rate of rural–urban migration.
The problems of our urban centers cannot be solved unless those of the rural areas are first solved. Rural–urban migration is functional to rural development and also to the continual development of the urban areas and therefore needs to be stemmed. In order to do this, those facilities and opportunities that exist in the urban centers need to be available to the rural dwellers in the rural areas. Rural development as a concept and as a programme of action has therefore attracted so much attention and material resources that it has become enthroned as an article of faith in the development of many third countries with the conviction that rural development is the wonder formula for replacing rural poverty with rural prosperity in the third world, national government, development agencies and relevant international organizations across rural development in almost all the third world countries. Many people view, rural development to be agricultural development, to some; it is primarily concerned with welfare. These views are myopic because rural development should include the political lives of the rural dwellers and should be relevant to the alleviation of all the conditions associated with the rural sector. It is true that economic box of the rural people is agriculture, but beyond food. They also need education, employment, decent housing, medical care, electricity, good roads and other means of communication.
The rural development task environment is an inter-governmental, supra ministerial, organizational world which is important by a myriad of complex, large-scale, formal and informal organizations, public and private organizations.
Dallam (2003) therefore, conceptualizes rural development as involving four levels of functioning in organization.
- A planned programme of action through national formulated policies
- Self - help through community mobilization and participation
- Technical assistance through a large pool integration of federal recruited professionals.
- Integration of various specialists through a systematic approach to rural development. From this perspective, the motional planning process would start from the grass roots by ascertaining from the people, their needs and this will make maximum achievement of plan programmes. It will therefore relate projects to local resources base and eliminate the bare wagon effect by which communities proliferate the same projects over shorts distances without regard to their optimum utilization; rural-urban migration in Nigeria therefore is a steady flow of young school leavers from the rural areas to the urban areas. Reasons for this rural urban migration are to search for job opportunities that will improve one’s standard of living. Another reason is that people like living or residing in a suitable environment. The third point why people migrate from rural to urban areas is to escape from religions, political and social situation of knowledge and skill.
Almost all the universities and other institution of higher learning are located in urban cities. Those seeking for higher education therefore move to the urban areas in other to attend these institutions. Due to inadequate modern facilities in rural areas, life in rural areas is generally dull. There are no social amenities such as
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