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BIZARRE BEHAVIOR AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN EDUCATION DISTRICT 6
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
From time immemorial, the alarming rate of bizarre behavior among Nigerian youths particularly in the public school had increased tremendously. In the last decade, government negligence, and socio-economic factors have contributed to the increasing neglect of youths in the society. No doubt, the obvious effects of this is the risk in criminal tendencies among our secondary schools students many of whom are alienated not only from their families but also from the entire society. Smoking, fighting bullying and stealing have proliferated among young students in our secondary schools.
Consequently, bizarre acts in our schools continue unchecked, dressing mini, bushy and devilish haircut, ear notching, use of designer hair ring among male and female students are common sight. Worse and common is extortion of money from the junior ones by the senior ones under duress.
Hence bizarre behavior can be regarded as that behavior on the part of children and youth which may be regarded as deviation of youth and children of school age from accepted or established norms and values or reasonably ways of life in the schools as a subsystem of the society Adedokun (2004).
Bizarre behavior is typically defined as psychological disorder in which are in one way or the other maladaptive. This is because they threaten the well being of the individual student, youth around them, block the growth and fulfillment of the students potential which are within the secondary school age range between 10 and 20 years. It is also a term used to connote anti-social and personality disorders, an act done by children or youths, which when committed by adults would be a crime (Denga 2001)
Howels (1986) defines bizarre behavior as someone who has fallen out of his culture and deficient in socially accepted and adaptive behavior. He explained further that the deviant behavior may be viewed as part of a rebellion against schools, culture, norms and society in general
Dunken (1988) sees bizarre behavior as a realm of cultural criticism, lawlessness and non-conforming behavioral tendencies of our youth and children He sees behavior of this nature among our school youth as antisocial personality disorder and therefore call them as non conformist.
Bowlby (1974) in his book “Maternal Care and Mental Health” wrote on children in schools and their life pattern, in his research, he came to a conclusion that, unless there is a warm intimacy and continuous relationship between the school and home, whatever that disrupt and disturb the good relationship. This could lead to delinquency in our children.
In the encyclopedia of the social sciences, the status of a “child offender” is well defined. Bizarre behavior is not a crime and rejected youngsters cannot be charge with such crime and must be adjudge delinquent such “child offender” must be counseled, corrected and rehabilitated.
In general abnormality or abnormal behaviors observe in secondary school students which are bizarre and disruptive in nature, focuses on people who are consistently unable to adapt and function effectively in a wide varieties of school conditions and activities. One that goes against common or majority or presumed standard of behavior in the school environment, feeling of strangeness, depressed, isolation, loss of feeling, guilt, lost of reality and all other sensation recognized and labeled by an individual as out of the ordinary, out of common sense and of no moral justification for such bizarre behavioral tendencies in our secondary schools.
These inabilities to adapt and function can be affected by a number of pre-disposing variables including school physical condition, school administrative life-style, learning condition, peer group, home background/upbringing and parental responsibilities which are both educational and environmental in nature.
No doubt, today we talk about secret cults (cultism), examination malpractices, rapping and other highly criminalized vices, tendencies in our tertiary institutions, all these violates socially and educationally acceptable standards.
It is therefore very disheartening to see and read negative reports about the attitude of the young school students particularly the male involvement and the high incidence of destructive behavior. These acts were hitherto very common in Lagos, Ogun and some other states in Nigeria including Africa and all over the world. It may be attributed to many factors such as loss of moral values, high level of parental literacy, teachers neglect, poor home background, parental neglected, child abuse including unfavorable school structures and environment. Chukwuede, (2002) supports this view when he post that most of the children of low-income earners and low socio-economic background indulged in bizarre behavioral tendencies more often irrespective of their age, sex, class and administrative style of schools.
From the above, this study examines bizarre behavior, implications and consequences on students academic performance. Studies have pointed out that bizarre behavior is more a product of bad parenting and parental irresponsibility than social and economic factors. For instance, Denga (1999) lamented that poor dressing among young male school students have psychologically imposes other problems like flying the uniform polo, sagging and mini-skirt, which consumes much of the students serious school time that necessitated the poor academic performance in schools, in public examinations such as Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE), West African Examination Council (WAEC), and National Examination Council (NECO), in recent time and drop-out syndrome noticed among the secondary school age students
There are many things students does that we find strange and unexplainable nowadays we see various body tattooing and ear piercing and branding among younger generation of students. Their life style of dressing may seen bizarred to adults and teachers including school counselors and administrators. Bizarred behavior that usually has no rational basis and even unexplainable to the students, however seems to indicate that the individual student is confused and this frequently brings on hallucination.
On the other hand destructive behavior are characterized by behavior which are schizophrenic and anti social in nature, are very common sight including personality disorder such as bad dressing, indecent dressing, bushy hair, sagging, use of wrong socks, examination scandals, including youthful display of high handedness, bullying extorting, gangsterism, damage to school facilities and display of thuggery among our school youths, in their late teens and early twenties.
It should be kept in mind that parental roles in child development and education are vital. A child needs good reading, teaching and learning environment, mental relaxation to perform better with good parenting at home, provision of secure, stable and effective study condition that stimulate intellectual development. A child needs from parent and teachers, a positive involvement in positive learning that effect positively on their academic performances. Fan & Chen (2001).
Parental help and responsibilities which are armed at greater cognitive competence, greater problem-solving skills, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer behavioral problems at schools. In effect a more powerful indicator and predictor of achievement at teens must be geared towards, good parental interest and perception of their roles and responsibilities in full filling it.
This study therefore examines the home and learning environment as a factors, a breeding ground that expose students to bizarre acts, as well as responsible for their poor academic performance among the Secondary School students in Oshodi/Isolo Education District Six of Lagos State.
1.2. Theoretical Framework
There have been various theoretical approaches and background carried out by various scholars on bizarre behavior of our youths of school age and its implication Our main concern was the academic performance of students most especially at the active secondary school stage including how these behaviors can be controlled such studies were very paramount. Therefore the various work by some of these scholars would be reviewed to enable us understand various positions that have already been taken.
Adetola and Ademola (1985) maintained that the criminal disposition among the young people in our society is a reflection of changing structures of the society. He went further to maintain that delinquent behavior are either antisocial or criminal, and also refer to them as either violent or not violent behavioral tendencies by the youth (age of below 17) According to him societal, technologies instruments, and value system are changing and all these combine to create new directions and demands.
Ogundare (1995) in his own view, tired to link the concept of delinquency of our school children with “idleness” he maintained that an idle had or mind is the “devils workshop” hence most of the school age children must be well occupied in the school to discourage the school been made a “breeding ground” for bad behavior. He therefore suggested that the roles of schools and parents has very significant, positive influence that inculcate the right moral value in them, getting them well occupied at school and at home, shun materialism and male a delinquent free society.
Bagot (1982) in his study, found that poverty (parental background) was a vital factor among the causes of bizarre behavior of our youth in Liverpool. Among the 200 convicted and studied, 48% of the students were from parental background without any source of income, while 29% of them are from broken or separated home and 12% were from people who are either taken as house help or staying with grandma.
Shittu (2004) discover in his research that stable home and school environment, good parenting, role modeling and good school infrastructural facilities supported by strong economic home background are very important germane that could enhance academic success of a child.
Stanley (2001) Argues that if parent of one or both partners in a marriage were divorced when they were children, the partners themselves are likely to divorce. One reason he gave was that children of divorced parents have low esteem, poor interest and aptitude to school living and learning. These impacted negatively on the academic performance of such affected children.
Parental involvement has, the greatest positive effect at Secondary level of education in curbing bizarre behavior, thereby raising their academic performance. Symon (1999) also found that parental interest in their child’s education was the single most powerful prediotor of achievement at high school age. Desforges (2003) also research into parental helps in learning processes and strong contact with schools and teachers significantly led to higher academic performance, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer or totally eliminate negative behavioral problems at secondary schools this improve parents and teachers perception of that roles and increase their level of confidence in fulfilling it.
1.2.1 Bizarre Behavior in Perspective
Bizarre Destructive behavior is a diagnoses applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the right, safely or feeling of others this pattern of behavior is seen in secondary school age children or young adolescent and persist into adulthood. People diagnosed with Bizarre behavior in school population act as if they have no conscience. They move through society as predators paying little attention to the consequences of their actions. They don’t understand the feelings of guilt or remorse. Deceit and manipulation characterized the interpersonal relationship.
Bizarre behavior is described by Moeller and Gerard (2007) as a disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the right of others that begins in childhood or school age or early adolescent and continues into adulthood.
In United State population. Bizarre disorder is estimated to affect 3% of boys and 1% in girls. The percentage may be even higher among inmates or person treated for substance abuse.
Men or women diagnosed with this behavioral disorder, demonstrate few emotions beyond contempt for others. Their lack of empathy is often combined with an inflated sense of self-worth and a superficial charm that tends to mask an inner indifference to the needs or feelings of others. Some studies indicate students with this can only mimic the emotions associated with committed love relationship and friendships that most people feel naturally.
Students reared by parents with this behavioral disorder are more likely to develop this than members of the general population. Students with the disorder may be antisocial, living in poverty, suffering from a concurrent substance abuse disorder, or piling up extensive criminal records, as bizarre destructive disorder is associated with low socioeconomic status and urban backgrounds. Highly intelligent students with bizarre destructive behavior however, may not come to the attention of the criminal justice or mental health care systems and may be underrepresented in diagnosed statistics.
Some legal experts and mental health professionals do not think that this mal-adjusted behavior classified as a mental disorder, on the grounds that the classification appears to excuse unethical, illegal, or immoral behavior. Despite these concerns, juries in the United States have consistently demonstrate that they do not regard a diagnosed of their as exempting a person from prosecution or punishment for crimes committed.
Bizarre disorder is seen in 3% to 30% of psychiatric outpatients. The prevalence of the disorder is even higher in selected populations, like prisons, where there is a preponderance of violent offenders. A 2002 literature review of studies on mental disorders in prisoners stated that 47% of male prisoners and 21% of female prisoners had antisocial personality disorder.
similarly, the prevalence of Antisocial is higher among patients in alcohol or other drug abuse treatment programs than in the general population
1.2.2 Causes and Scope of Bizarre Behavior
Causes of bizarre behavior
Studies of adopted children indicated that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of both biological and adopted children of people diagnosed with the disorder have an increased risk of developing it. Children born to parents diagnosed with this disorder but adopted into other families resemble their biological more than their adoptive parents. The environment of the adoptive home, however, may lower the child’s risk of developing bizarre behavior
Researchers have linked this disorder to childhood physical or sexual abuse, neurological disorders and low IQ. But, as with other disorder. Persons diagnosed with bizarre disorder also have an increased incidence of substance-related disorders.
Bizarre destructive disorder is said to be genetically based but typically has environmental factors, such as family relations, that trigger its onset. Traumatic events can lead to a disruption of the standard development of the central nervous system, which can generate a release of hormones that can change normal patterns of development. One of the neurotransmitters that have been discussed in individual with this disorder is serotonin.
While it has been shown that lower levels of serotonin may be associated with this disorder, there has also been evidence that decreased serotonin function is highly correlated with impulsiveness and aggression across a number of different experimental paradigms. Impulsivity is not only linked with irregularities in metabolism but may be the most essential psychopathological aspect linked with such dysfunction. In a study looking at the relationship between the combined effects of central serotonin activity and acute testosterone levels on human aggression, researchers found that aggression was significantly higher in subject with a combination of high testosterone and high cortisol responses, which correlated to decreased serotonin levels. Correspondingly, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder classifies “impulsiveness or failure to plan ahead “and irritability and aggressiveness” as two of the seven criteria in diagnosing someone with this disorder.
Robert D. Hare (2008) has suggested that the rise in bizarre Destructive behavior that has been reported in the United States may be linked to changes in cultural mores, the latter serving to validate the behavioral tendencies of many individuals. While the rise reported may be in part merely a byproduct of the widening use (and abuse) of diagnostic technique. It has been plausibly suggested that the erosion of collective standards may indeed serve to release the individual with latent such behavior from their previously prosocial behavior. There is also a continuous debate as to the extent to which the legal system should be involved in the identification and admittance of patient with preliminary symptoms of bizarre tendencies.
Some studies suggested that the social and home environment has contributed to the development of bizarre destructive act. The parents of these children have been shown to display such behavior, which could be adopted by their children.
Scopes of bizarre behavior
i. Substance Abuse Disorder
Researcher have linked bizarre destructive behavior to substance related disorder it is not uncommon for a person with a substance abuse disorder to lie to others in order to obtain money for drugs or alcohol. Behavior that characterize substance abuse disorder among secondary school ages may include drug abuse, smoking cigarette hemp, including hard substance that affect mood. This may in the long run lead to depression anxiety and mood swing that co-occur if untreated students with substance-abuse disorder are at risk for developing or worsening a myriad of other mental cases and students may be at risk for self mutilation or dying from homicide or suicide
Theories regarding the life experience that put people at risk for substance abuse disorder include a history of childhood physical environment sexual and emotional abuse neglect deprivation abandonment per association who engaged in such abuse or having a parents who is either alcoholic druggist or antisocial.
ii. Destructive Disorder
The manual of the American Psychiatric Association notes that any abuse or neglect combines with erratic parenting or inconsistent discipline appears to increase the risk that a child will be diagnose with destructive disorder. Destructive Behavior common among secondary school age students may include damage to school furniture breaking of school window, Louvers willful destruction and burning school building including school buses in protest or for jus no rational reasons. Since there is no specific definite test that can accurately asses the presence of destructive behavioral disorder. Counselors’ and health care professionals conduct a mental health interview that look for the presence of antisocial symptoms and was positive. But if the cultural context of the symptoms is not considered, the disorder may be falsely diagnosed as being present
iii. Conduct Disorder
Conduct disorder is misbehavioral in nature and may include misconduct tendencies which may include fighting in and outside the school, malpractices in both internal and external examination, telling lies, using false names and conning of others for profits or pleasure. They cheat others, extort to gain money or power, selling illegal material in the school such as drugs, phones, sett, memory card and quick tendencies to exploit others. This on set is before age 15 years. The American Psychiatric Society add that person who shows sign of conduct abuse with accompany attention deficit disorder have a greater chance of being diagnosed with bizarre destructive behavior at school age. Conduct disorder is a destructive behavior characterized by initiating fighting, betting, and other offensive behavior common with male students of school age as far as breaking school rules are concern
iv. Oppositional Deviant Disorder
Behavioral deviancy is considered bizarre in that they are considered different from its normal state or path e.g youth of school age may be appositionally deviant sexually or may refuse to follow the path of school procedures, rule, regulations including instruction, students found outside the school with uniform roaming about the street without proper exit are grossly deviant. Although deviant behavior can be quite resistant to treatment the most effective intervention tends to be a combination of firm but fair programming that emphasizes teaching the deviant students skills that can be use to live independently and productively within the rules and limits to society medication may not directly treat the behavior that characterize deviant disorder according to people with deviant behavioral disorder experience in the long run a remission of symptoms by the time they reach 50 years of age.
This is a form of social aggression some theories about the socio-biological risk factors of deviant disorder include dysfunction of certain gene, hormones or damage to part of the brain. Diagnoses often associated with deviant disorder often include antisocial disorder, attention deficit disorder and reading and memory disorder. Secondary school student in this category are bizarredly in form of disobedience, negativism provocative to authority figures more commonly seen in boys than girls and age onset is three in children.
v. Personality Disorder
Personality disorder is a persistent pattern of thought, feeling dressing that is significantly different from what is considered normal within the persons own culture and professional group. Personality disorder as a type bizarre behavior based on commonality of symptoms. It is considered as a totality of various self behaviors, personal in nature.
Personality disorder among our secondary school students can be well identifiable such as all forms of indecent dressing appearances such as tattooing, branding, nose and ear notching and piercing. Indecent dressing among our school children may include tattered uniform, flying of polo shirt, dressing mini, sagging, labeling signs on uniform, wrong school socks, cap and sandal including all forms of incomplete and dirty appearance, other forms of personality disorder which are bizzarre in nature are dissocial.
vi. Anti-Social Behavior
These behaviors among students is dominated by anxiety, anger inhibited and pervasive pattern of misbehavior and violation of the right of other school mates it is characterized by lawlessness, restlessness, bullying, show of gangsterism and supremacy. A nti social disorder is a dramatics shown of all forms misbehavioural tendencies, disregard to school rules, procedures, jumping school protocols students exhibits behavior which are purely eccentric, erratic and counter – social in all its ramification in the school environment
Dissocial or Anti-social behavioral tendencies also includes smoking of cigarette and use of the influence of seniority to harass the junior ones and bullying on them. The occurrences of antisocial behavior is not exclusive during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode
1.2.3 Theory of Bizarre Behavior
A. The planned behavior Theory (By:- Grizzel J and Godin G.)
The theory suggest that unexplained behaviour is dependent on one’s intention to perform the behaviour. Intention is determined by an individual attitude, i.e beliefs, value about the outcome of the behaviour and subjective norms i.e. belief about what other people think the person should do or general social pressure. This theory also viewed bizarre behaviour as determination of an individuals’ perceived behavioural control and individual perception of their ability or feeling of self efficacy to perform the behaviour. This relationship is typically dependent on the relationship and the nature of the situation it acquired and learnt.
The attitude towards the behaviour, intention and the perceived behaviour control are models of this theory. The intention to perform the bizarreness’ has been shown to be the most important variable in predicting the behaviour which are often linked with ones personal motive. For perceived behavioural control to influence behavioural change in bizarre behavioural change, much like with self efficiency, a person must perceive that they have the ability to perform the behaviour. Therefore as Grizzel suggests that perceived control over opportunities, resources and skills needed are an important part of the behavioural change process.
Intention to perform a bizarre behaviour, suggest that it may be important to present information to help shape positive attitudes of students towards the behaviour and stress subjective norm or opinion that support the behaviour.
B. The Transtheoretical Theory (By Prochaska J.)
The transtheoretical Theory proposes that behaviour which are maladaptive are consequence of changes as a process of six stages. He behave that individual including students are bizarre and are propelled by unresolved conflicts, anxiety, unconscious conflicts, not by a singular factor rather than the interaction of various factoral stages. These are:
- Pre – Contemplation:- Is the stage in which the individual behaves abnormally for just no course and are not ready to reason for any change.
- Contemplation stage: is the where people are aware of their bizarre behaviour.
- Preparation stage: is when the individual is ready for the consequences of their action this are more to action stage when the bizarre maladaptness becomes visible and p
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