EFFECTS OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study evaluated the effects of the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of computer in the junior secondary schools of Ebonyi State. The study also examined the effect of instructional materials and gender on students’ academic achievement in computer studies. The performance of students taught with instructional materials was compared with those of students taught with conventional teaching method. In order to carry out the study effectively, three research questions were asked and tested. Many related literature were reviewed. The sample for the study consisted of 100 secondary school students. The population of the study consists of all the junior secondary school in Ebonyi state of the total of 223, using the JSS1 student of about 19,250. The researcher constructed the test items, which were then face validated by Experts; one in computer education and the other in measurement and evaluation after which it was administered to the students. Computer studies achievement test (CSAT) was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question. The analysis indicated that instructional materials had significant effects on students’ cognitive achievement in computer. Gender was a significant factor in the students’ overall cognitive achievement in computer. Thus, it is recommended to use instructional materials in the teaching and learning of computer, state governments or their ministries of Education and professional associations should organize workshops, seminars and conferences to train the serving teachers on the use of instructional materials technique. Finally, the limitation of study and suggestion for further studies were highlighted.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Attainment of any teaching and learning objectives involves both human resources and materials resources and factors, that is, the teacher who is the enforcer of the subject content and the availability of both convectional materials and improvised materials, otherwise known as instructional materials. These factors must be in place to ensure attained educational objective, instructional materials are said to be all those materials needed in the classroom to be used by the teacher for the purse of facilitating teaching and learning. According to Kay (2008), instructional materials stimulate the students’ desire to learn, and assist learning process by making assimilations and memorizing of the learned topic easy for students.
Agun (2008) refers to them as learning materials, the proper use which helps learners to learn faster and better. Offering computer studies, the computer itself serves as an instructional material because the subject is more of concrete object that can be seen and touched by both the teacher and learners (Ituma, 2010).
According to Benson (2011) instructional materials are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous impact if intelligently used. In most cases learner have the difficulty in understanding some certain concepts as a result of their cognitive operation and ability, hence the need for teachers to employ materials and methods that will facilitate students’ understanding of the concepts as in the case of computer studies is appreciated. It is against this background that (Nwuba2016) cited jean Piaget who postulated human beings to be classified along sensory motor, pre-operational, concrete and abstract cognitive level.
In a real sense, a teacher is someone who combines materials and interprets concepts in other to have desired change or outcome in the learners. The role of a teacher is often formal and ongoing carried out by way of occupation or profession at school or other formal settings. Education has instrumentally impacted positively to the survival of the society at large, this sole reason is why modifications are required in the educational field in other to induce and facilitate teaching and learning and also meet up with latest changes and trends. Education of yester years relied on few or no instructional materials in trying to impact knowledge in learners, their assumptions were that knowledge can be forced on student regardless of the individual differences that is found in the classroom. (Obanya2013)
The subject computer studies was introduced into the secondary school curriculum to develop and input in learners the right knowledge and skills about computer and also to empower the youth through entrepreneurships since computer centers are current moving trend in the society (Adebayo, 2013).
According to Abu (2004), the importance of computer device in our society cannot be over-emphasized and that is the reason why the teaching of the computer studies should not be toyed with and should be handled with proper instructional materials. Instructional material is a major determinant that controls the pace of teaching and learning in the classrooms. Okereke (2009) stressed that many school in the state level cannot boast of instructional materials and contend that every government should make education a top priority to help improve the standard of education by providing instructional materials. Instructional material is an aid of teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials make teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing. They make learning effective.
Otu ( 2007 ) stressed out that the computer studies is a "tool"; it is real and should be treated as such, the inability to produce the right teaching instructional materials poses a big threat in students’ academic achievements and performance in the subject. For computer studies to be learned properly, there must be a computer device, due to the fact that the subject presents a level of abstract concepts that need to be visualized by student so as to induce their understanding and to remedy the issue of individual differences.
Therefore for the effective understanding of the subject matter in computer studies and for students to achieve better in computer studies, there is great need to examine the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies with the aim of stimulating the interest of the students.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The junior secondary school is the first part of the secondary school level of education according to the national policy on education (NPOE 2004), which means that proper attention is needed to ensure that students perform well academically, this may not be possible without the application of instructional materials in the classroom. The teachers’ level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality of education. These are expressed on how well the teacher is able to perceive, create, use important information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities.
Instructional materials are major determining variables that control the pace of learning. It has to do with the creation of environment in which students can develop the full potentials and lead productive lives in accordance to the demands of their interest, either as individuals or as group within the society.
The Nigerian government, at all levels over the years placed enormous emphasis on instructional materials in shaping efforts as strategies aimed at improving students’ standard of learning in the country but both theoretical and empirical literature failed to capture the real factors as to why the standard of education in the country still remain very low. Therefore, the question to be answered by this study is: what are the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies in Ebonyi State secondary school system
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the effects of instructional materials on teaching and learning of computer studies in Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to:
i. Examine the effects of instructional materials on students’ achievements in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
ii. Examine the effects of instructional materials on the achievements of male and female students in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
iii. Examine the interaction effects of treatment and gender on students’ achievements in computer studies in junior secondary school of Ebonyi state.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of immense benefit to the computer studies teachers, students, curriculum planners and the Ebonyi State ministry of education.
The result of this study will unveil to teachers the importance of instructional materials in the classroom and make them appreciate and begin to use them for their instructions.
The findings of this study will serve as a reference document to groups and learners when conducting research on the effects of instructional materials in computer studies.
And also, the findings of this study will help curriculum planners to attach great importance to instructional materials and also make them to be conscious of integrating instructional aids and theoretical frameworks in curriculum developments.
This study will also play a vital role as source of information to the government of Ebonyi State that inability to provide adequate instructional materials in the subject is leading to the failure of the attainment of instructional aims and objectives.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the effects of instructional materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state. It also encompasses both private and public junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were designed to guide the study:
1) What is the difference between the achievements of students taught with instructional materials and the students taught without instructional materials?
2) What is the difference between the achievements of male and female students taught with instructional materials?
3) What is the effect of interaction between treatment and gender on students’ achievements in Computer Studies?
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