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TEACHING RESOURCES AND TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study investigated the influence of teaching materials on teaching effectiveness in secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study equally reviewed some important and extensive literature relevant to the study. The descriptive research design was applied in the assessment of respondents’ opinions towards the subject matter. In this study, three null hypotheses were formulated and tested with the application of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Statistical tool at 0.05 significant level. Also, percentage and frequency counts were used to interprete the questionnaire responses which were used to answer the research questions. A total of 200 respondents, 100 male and 100 female teachers were selected for this study. At the end of the data analyses, the following results were obtained: that there is a significant relationship between teaching resources and teaching effectiveness, that there is a significant relationship between utilization of instructional resources and students’ academic performance in public secondary schools, and that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ quality and teaching effectiveness. Based on the conclusions reached at the end of this study, the following recommendations are made by the researcher: there should be allocation of more time to the practical aspects of instructional materials in secondary schools and government should subsidise the cost of students’ practical work on instructional materials.
1.1 Background to the Study
Muijs and Reynolds (2005) posit that the importance of teaching, and how teachers teach in their classrooms, are being recognized as of key importance in many ways. Teaching students is the most important thing that teachers do. Bilesanmi-Awoderu (2000) opines that the success of teaching work depends upon good planning by the teachers in terms of adequate preparation, supply and availability of equipment and learning material. One of the goals of teacher education as enunciated in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) is the production of highly motivated, conscientious and effective teachers for all levels of educational system. Such teachers are expected to be professionally and academically qualified to perform their duties effectively. In order to standardize the quality of education, Muijs and Reynolds (2005) identify the teacher as a major factor in students’ learning.
Fracer (1992) and Olorojaye (1997) identify students’ availability, school resources and classroom environment as crucial factors to learning. Resource availability, allocation and utilization have been perceived as indicators of effectiveness in the school situation. Resources in the school situation include personnel as well as physical and material resources. The primary function of the teacher according to Omoniyi (2000) is to facilitate learning. One of the ways of bringing about effective learning is to make the experience real. This involves using real life examples that are related to the learner’s experiences. The other alternative involves the use of representation. The use of representation involves the use of materials and devices which help the teacher to make realistic approach to the teachers’ job.
Teaching resources according to Omoniyi (2000), will include making available materials to the students, making procedures for any investigation simple and clear and clarifying procedures and giving encouragements to students in the classroom. Bajah (1998), notes that the quality of any teaching is judged by the effect which it has on learners and the society. Okebukola (2009), posits that what is on ground in the education sector as at December 31, 2008 shows that not only are numbers of school enrolment low, but the quality of learning outcomes is poor, the curriculum, one of the resources for effective learning, is not appropriate for the needs of a modern society which seeks to create a competitive and efficient economy.
Okebukola (1995), posits that Nigeria was one of the nations which spent a high proportion of her resources on the academic pursuit of her students at all levels and that Nigeria was the second best at the secondary and tertiary levels of education in terms of resources commitment. Yet, Adeyegbe (1994) observes that students’ performance in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in five subjects – English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in 1988 and 1994 – were poor.
In view of the observations above, this study attempts to identify the relationships between teaching resources and teaching effectiveness in secondary schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Resource availability, allocation, and utilization have been perceived as indicators of effectiveness in the school situation. Obilade (1998), observes that the two major obstacles that hinder efforts at successful resource management are those of waste and underutilization or underemployment of resource. A major prerequisite to efficient resource management is the total elimination (or reduction) in the incidence of waste terms is more than made up for the wealth of experience and expertise that can be harnessed from the people provided that the skilled administrator can use them to his/her advantage.
In the public schools in Nigeria, there is no doubt that there is inadequate resources measured in terms of human and material resources. For example, Okorosaye-Orubite (2008), observed that it is sad to note that for an education programme (Universal Basic Education, UBE) that was launched in 1999, which was expected to commence in 2005, it was only in December 2005 that directive was given for the development of school curriculum for the implementation of the programme. Hence Okorosaye-Orubite (2008), raises the question that how can one expect books that will be used in school to be put in place when curriculum was not available. This equally applies to instructional materials. In today’s educational environment, the use of information technology to aid learning is very crucial. However, Okebukola (2009), posits that the level of information, communication and technology (ICT) usage, though gradually improving, remains low. The problem of resources in Nigeria educational sector was captured by Okebukola (2009), as he concludes that throughout the educational sector, there is infrastructural decay, a lack of teaching/learning materials and inadequate facilities which has contributed to gross low learning achievements. We should have befitting learner-friendly schools, rather than the present poorly resource institutions with poor instructional materials and large size class. in view of the above, the problem of this study is that of inadequate teaching resources as they influence teaching effectiveness.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study examines various teaching resources and their influences on school effectiveness. The study operational objectives include the following:
1. To highlight the teaching resources that can bring about school effectiveness as well as high students’ academic performance.
2. To examine the adequacy or otherwise of teaching resources in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State.
3. To know the level of teaching effectiveness on students’ performance in Mainland Local Government area.
4. To identify the influence of human element on teaching effectiveness and students’ academic performance.
5. To investigate whether students prefer instructional materials to verbal lecture.
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions drawn for the study:
1. Is there any significant difference between the availability and utilization of teaching resources in public secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area?
2. What are the teaching resources that can bring about effectiveness as well as students’ high academic performance?
3. What is the influence of human element on teaching effectiveness and students’ performance?
4. Do students prefer instructional materials to verbal lecture?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated for this study:
1. Availability of teaching resources does not influence significantly on effectiveness of teaching.
2. There is no relationship between the availability and utilization of instructional resources and academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State.
3. Teachers’ quality does not significantly influence teaching effectiveness.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study examines teaching resources and teaching effectiveness in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State. Therefore, if this study is successfully carried out, it is expected to benefit the following individuals and groups:
Researchers: This study is expected to add to the bank of knowledge in the academic field in that, other researchers are expected to benefit and can replicate the study using other local government areas and states in Nigeria since environmental factors in Lagos State differ from other states. Other environmental factors may influence the outcomes of such study (ies) in rural areas since Lagos is a metropolitan state in Mainland Local Government is located. Generally this study is expected to add or contribute to knowledge in the area of educational administration.
Government: Governments at the three tiers (Federal, State and Local) are expected to benefit from this study in that it will show whether government is performing well in the area of providing resources in the schools. Also, a well educated citizen will not give the government problems and this will lead to socio-economic and political development.
Students: The students are the primary beneficiaries of this study because the study will expose what impede learning and suggests solution(s). This will make learning easier for the students.
Teachers: Teachers finds it difficult when resources to use are unavailable or inadequate. If the suggestions of this study are carried out and government is able to implement the suggestions by providing adequate and quality resources in the public schools, the work of the teachers in impacting knowledge in the students will be made easy.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study is limited to secondary schools in Mainland Local Government area of Lagos State. This study attempts to identify the various types of resources and the extent to which they can influence school effectiveness.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Due to the nature of this study which is self financed and time constrained, all the secondary schools in Lagos State were not covered to investigate the influence of teaching resources on teaching effectiveness, rather Mainland Local Government area was covered. Also, only five public secondary schools were sampled for the purpose of this study.
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