PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Geography education was introduced in the Nigerian School Curriculum as part of the instrument for achieving national development (National Policy on Education (NPE) 1981). This was what informed its designation as part of the core curriculum at different levels of education in Nigeria. problems and prospects geography education curriculum development agencies such as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and experts further identified and disseminated the curriculum goals or purposes of the subject in the school curriculum. These include citizenship education, reflective inquiry and geography education, (Barth-shermis, 1920; Barth-Norris, 1976; Dubey and Barth, 1980; Olawepo, 1984) among others.
These broadly stated goals must be clare to, and recognized as important as well as attainable by teachers and other participants connected with the Curriculum if the intentions or purposes must be realized and the investment of effort is to be considered worthwhile (Feather, 1982; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988). These intentions or purposes are prima facie stated with clarity, but their perception or conceptualization by teachers and scholars is still in doubt as Onyabe (1980) observed that the philosophy, content and methodology of geography education has remained vague to both scholars and teachers. The incidence of conflicting conceptions of geography education curriculum is a cause for concern for three major reasons. First, the anchor or strategic position of purposes or intentions in the curriculum development process (Pratt, 1994) as illustrated in Tyler (1949) (Linear) and Wheeler (1980) (cyclic) curriculum models, among others.problems and prospects.
Secondly, curriculum goals or purposes, are indispensable elements in instructions as far as effective implementation of an already developed curriculum is concerned. Thirdly, the correct conception, investment of efforts and ultimate realization of the purposes of the curriculum will facilitate the realization of the overall aims of the Nigerian educational enterprise. problems and prospects
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Presently, junior secondary school students interest and academic achievement in geography education is declining. Lemchi (2001) noted that some students are losing interest in the subject. Attitudes associated with geography education appear to affect students performance in the subject. Also, many geography education teachers teach geography education without instructional materials and facilities (Mberengwa 2004). The quality of teachers, and class room facilities are grossly inadequate and obsolete. Owolabi et al. (1991) also indicated that a serious disconnection exists between geography education training in secondary schools and the needs of the labour market, as students that do not proceed to higher education have been found to be incompetent in the field of work. Where students consistently perform poorly, the implication is that adequate teaching and learning has not taken place in schools. Therefore, the problem of this study is to examine the problems of teaching and learning of geography education in secondary schools in Enugu State.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the problems of teaching and learning of geography education in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu State, Nigeria. Specifically, this study sought to:
1. Find out the extent to which students attitudes constitute problems to the teaching and learning of geography education. problems and prospects.
2. Assess the extent to which teacher quality and quantity constitute problems to the teaching and learning of geography education. problems and prospects.
3.Find out the extent to which instructional materials constitute problems to the teaching and learning of geography education. problems and prospects.
4.Determine the extent to which curriculum issues pose problems to the teaching/learning of geography education. problems and prospects.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. To what extent do attitudes of Enugu State Junior Secondary Schools Students constitute problems to the teaching of geography education?
2. To what extent to teacher quality and quantity cause problems to the teaching of geography education?
3. To what extent do instructional materials pose problems to the teaching and learning of geography education?
4. To what extent do curriculum issues pose problems to the teaching and learning of geography education?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0(1): The qualities of teachers teaching geography would have no significant effect in the teaching and learning of geography.
H0(2): Attitudes of students toward teaching and learning of geography would have no significant impact on students’ performance
H0(3): The environment would have no significant effect on the learning of geography
H0(4): The time allocated to the teaching of geography has no significant relationship with the use of instructional material
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study gives various insights into the challenges of teaching geography education in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. These highlighted challenges will enable stakeholders in the education sector to take adequate measures in tackling these challenges, and make learning of geography education a lot easier for both teachers and students in junior secondary school levels. problems and prospects.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the challenges and prospects of teaching geography education at junior secondary schools in Nigeria using Enugu state as a case study. Findings and recommendations for the study may not reflect the true view of the challenges of teaching geography education in Nigeria, as the researcher could not cover a wider area in Nigeria due to time and financial constraints, problems and prospects.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are some limiting factors which influence the researcher effort towards developing this work (project). The most prevailing being time factor as other school extra curricula activities that had to be met with teaching geography education.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Geography education is the “integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. geography education is most commonly recognized as the name of a course or set of courses taught in primary and secondary schools or elementary, middle, and secondary schools, but may also refer to the study of aspects of human society at certain post-secondary and tertiary schools around the globe. Many such courses are interdisciplinary and draw upon various fields, including sociology but also political . teaching social studies science, history, economics, religious studies, geography, psychology, anthropology, and civics. teaching geography education a challenge is a general term referring to things that are imbued with a sense of difficulty and victory of teaching geography education.
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