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ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUND WATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 79  |  3659 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000

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ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUND WATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

 

ABSTRACT

This project work was undertaken to assess the state of ground water(borehole and well water) and its health implications in Warri metropolis using Uvwie, Udu and Effurun Local Government Area. Samples were collected in six different locations in Warri metropolis. The analysis was centered on the physiochemical parameters considered pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen(DO), biological oxygen demand(BOD), total dissolved solid(TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, sulphate and faecal coliform. The results showed that Physico-chemical parameters; pH ranged from (3.97-6.62) in the borehole water standard, (5.76 – 6.70) well water; temperature varied from (27.5-29.5) borehole and (27.8-29.5) well water; conductivity ranges from(52-339) borehole and (332-594) well water; turbidity ranges from (0.53-1.23) borehole and (0.99-1.27) well water. Others all in (mg/L); DO ranged from (7.15-7.44) borehole water and, (6.30-7.17); TDS varied from (27 – 176) in borehole and (172-306) well water; TSS varied from (1.0-2.0) and, (1.0-4.0) well water; NO3- ranged from (8.7–20.0) in borehole and, (7.9-35.6) well water, SO42- (<1.0-6.0) in borehole and, (21.0-35.6) well water; BOD (<0.50) borehole and, (56.0-185) well water. Micro-biological parameters; TC (cfu/100ml) were not present in either of the ground water. All values were related to WHO, EPA and FMA standard of water quality. Hence it was therefore recommended that almost all the parameter analyzed for were of the standard of WHO, EPA and FMA which is portable for domestic uses, also with no health implication, except for BOD in well water which was above the WHO standard and pH which was below WHO pH standard would require treatment before usage.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The availability of wholesome and safe sources of drinking water currently constitutes one of the major challenges faced by developing countries, and could largely be attributed to the inability of governments to provide sufficient sources of pipe-borne water for poor and rural communities (Conway et al. 2009; Ngoran et al. 2015; Bain et al. 2012; Hutton and Bartram 2008). In the event of government failure to provide infrastructure, most affected communities have resorted to the indiscriminate exploitation of ground water through water wells created by both artisanal and mechanized means (Barrow 2016; Omole 2013). Shallow water wells which are broadly described as man-made excavations constructed for the purpose of sourcing water from, or monitoring the underground water system (Gronwall et al. 2010), could either be shallow-type or borehole (deep) type. Shallow wells which are hand-dug and are only a few meters deep (between 5 and 30 m depending on soil type) are common in the slums areas, and water is hand-drawn from the vast majority of them. They are the open type, lacking brick or stone walls at the sides, with others having a lining and a covered construction (Gronwall et al. 2010). On the other hand, boreholes  are  deep  type  of  well (between 40 and 400 m deep depending on soil type), constructed by a drilling machine, and are characterized by a narrow hole in the ground to gain access to the ground water system (Gronwall et al. 2010).

More than 300 million sub-Saharan Africans lack access to

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ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF GROUND WATER (BOREHOLE AND WELL WATER) AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

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