Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 63  |  1897 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000




Watson and Friend (1969) defined fear of negative evaluation as apprehension about others’ evaluation, distress over their negative evaluation, and the expectation that others would evaluate oneself negatively. Carleton et al, (2006) defined fear of negative evaluation as the apprehension and distress arising from concern about being judged despairingly or hostilely by others. Basically people with a high degree of fear of negative evaluation (which can be measured with Fear of Negative Evaluation scale developed by Watson and friend) are overly concerned with how they are judged or perceived by other people. They tend to imagine that they are being perceived in negative ways and they are often inhibited in their behaviour as a result. This people are also more responsive to situational factors, conformity, pre-social behavior e.t.c. It may also be seen in every social evaluating situation including testing, being on a date, talking to one’s superior, being interviewed for a job, or giving a speech (Watson and friend, 1969). Fear of negative evaluation is related to specific personality dimensions, such as anxiousness, submissiveness, and social avoidance. Several cognitive models, as well as previous research, support the notion that social anxiety is derived in part, from fear of perceived negative evaluation (Clark & Wells 1995; Rapee and Heimbeig, 1997). People with social anxiety demonstrate a variety of behaviours to avoid negative evaluation (Well et al, 1995) and have attentional biases for detecting social-evaluative threats (Asmundson & Stein, 1994; Heinrichs & Hofmann, 2001; Vassilopoloulos, 2005); however this sensitivity to social threats is believed to be based on implicit and automatic response determined by stimulus relevance (Philippot and Pouilliez, 2005).Socially anxious people have lower level of confidence in their perceived social skills (it has also been associated with increased shyness (Miller, 1995), the development of eating disorders (Gilbert and mayer, 2005), and lower self-esteem (kocovski and Endler, 2002).
Tozzi,F.,Aggen,S.,Neal,B.,Anderson,C.,Mazzeo,S.,Neal,M,.(2004) made a connection between fear of negative evaluation and perfectionism, suggesting that a fear of making mistake is one of the core features of perfectionism. Concern over mistake can be viewed as a form of negative evaluation. Succinctly put, mistakes are synonymous with failure and disapproval. Social anxiety is, in part response to perceived negative evaluation by others whereas Fear of Negative Evaluation is related to dread of being evaluated despairingly when participating in a social situation. Social anxiety is purely an emotional reaction to this type of social phobia. When patients with social phobia evaluate their relationship, they are extremely fearful of negative evaluation and express high degree of FNE. FNE has been suggested to have some genetic components as are other personality characteristics (trait anxiousness, submissiveness and social avoidance) Segrin, (2001). As a latent construct, fear of negative evaluation is believed to promote the development and expression of more general fears, anxiety and psychopathologies (Reiss and McNally, 1985). This latent fear is partially heritable; ((Stein, Jang, & Livesley, 2002). Given the necessity for positive, successful social interaction, particularly for persons in fear of therapy (Alden & Taylor, 2004; Segrin, 2001). Increased understanding of effect of fear of negative evaluation and its correlates is crucial. Self-concept is another important variable that we must talk about as it contributes a lot in determining whether a person would develop the fear of being negatively evaluated by people. The self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about or perceives himself. The self-concept can be defined as an organised knowledge structure or cognitive schema that contains all known information about the self, including past experiences, current knowledge, feelings, beliefs and self-evaluations (Markus, 1977). While the self-concept was once conceptualised as a stable, generalised view of the self, it is now viewed as a dynamic and multifaceted structure, which influences areas as diverse as self-regulation, goal setting, information processing, affect regulation, motivation, social perception, situation and partner choice, interaction strategies, and reactions to feedback (Markus &Wurf, 1987). This dynamic conceptualisation allowed for the observation that an individual’s self-concept could alter based on their currently accessible thoughts, attitudes and beliefs, which may be influenced by factors such as their current motivational state or social surroundings (Markus &Wurf, 1987). Self concept can be conceptualized in terms of both content and structure, that is how the person views themselves and how this self-relevant information is organized. Social cognitive researchers have found out that people vary in the stability of their self-concept (Campbell et al, 1996), and propose that an unstable self-concept results in sensitivity and susceptibility to self-relevant feedback (Campbell,1990). Psychologist, Carl Rogers (1951), was the first to establish the notion of self-concept. According to Rogers, everyone strives to reach an ‘’ideal self’’ (the closer one is to their ideal self, the happier one will be) Those who are unable to attain this goal may exhibit the fear of being negatively evaluated by others and most times they tend to avoid socially evaluative situations. Rogers claims that one factor in a person’s happiness is the “Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR) from others. UPR often occur in close of familial relationship, and involves a consistent level of attention regardless of the recipient emotion. According to Rogers, psychologically healthy people actively move away from roles created by others expectations and instead look within themselves for validation. On the other hand neurotic people have self-concept that do not match their own experiences. They are afraid to accept their own experiences as valid, so they distort them, either to protect themselves or to win approval from others. One important theory related to self-concept is self-categorization theory (SCT), which states that self-concept consist of at least two levels, a personal identity and a social identity. In other words ones self-evaluation rely on both self-perception and how others perceive them. If one perceives oneself as being incompetent, this negative self-evaluation would affect the person’s behaviour or disposition probably negatively in the same hand, positive self-evaluation breeds confidence in social situations. The temporary self-appraisal theory supports the above notion; it posits that people have a tendency to maintain a positive self-evaluation by distancing themselves from their negative self and paying more attention to their positive one. Body image is the perception that a person has of their physical self and the thoughts and feelings that result from that perception. These feelings can be positive, negative or both and are influenced by individuals and environmental factors
According to National Eating Disorders Collaboration (2014), there are four aspects of body image; it includes:
 (1) The perceptual body image which has to do with how one sees oneself. This is not always a correct representation of how one actually looks. For example, a person may perceive his/herself as overweight when they are actually underweight.
 (2) The affective body image which has to do with the way one feels about one’s body. It relates to the amount of satisfaction or dissatisfaction one feels about one’s shape, weight and individual body parts.
(3) The cognitive body image entails how one thinks about his or her body. This can lead to preoccupation with body shape and weight. For example, some people believe they will feel better about themselves if they are thinner or more muscular.
(4) Behavioural body image which entails the several behaviours one engages in as a result of one’s body image. When people are dissatisfied with the way they look, they may isolate themselves because they feel bad about their appearance or employ destructive behaviours (e.g excessive exercising, disordered eating) as a means to change their appearance.
Positive body image is important because it is one of the protection factors which can make a person more resilient to eating disorders, body dimorphic disorder, excessive exercise and other unfavourable behaviours. Positive body image occurs when a person is able to accept, appreciate and respect his or her body. Personal appearance is very important to everyone. It may influence how one feels about oneself, how one interacts with others, how one pays attention to one’s appearance on a daily basis, and what behaviours one practices in order to maintain one’s image (Sloan, 1995). Body dissatisfaction on the other hand, is a negative feeling about oneself, beauty, figure, colour, weight, height etc, (Obi, 2006).Body dissatisfaction is an internal process but can be influenced by several external factors. For example, family, friends, acquaintances, teachers and the media all have an impact on how a person sees and feels about themselves and their appearance. Individuals in appearance oriented environments or those who receive negative feedback about their appearance are at an increased risk of body dissatisfaction.  


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 54 135 1187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!