THE EFFECTS OF TRADE UNIONISM ON WORKERS PERFORMANCE
This study aims at finding out the effect of trade unionism in influencing workers performance, other functions of trade unions that tend towards benefiting both organization and employees are highlighted. It is also examined the relationship between trade unionism and the actions of the management. Efforts were also made to improve workers performance and create conducive working condition. From the statement of problem it was observed that there has been a growing tension between the organizational management and trade union on the best approach by which working performance in an organization would be acceded. For the method used questionnaire was used magazines, journals etc were also used. The researcher revealed that participative decision making exist between trade union and management. It was also seen that if really we want to achieve workers performance both management and trade union should be ready to compromise on some issue.
Nigerian Breweries limited was incorporated on 16th of Nov. 1946. In accordance with companies and Allied matters Act of 1990, the name was changed to Nigerian Breweries PLC. The company recorded a landmark in June 1949 when the bottle of star rolled out of the bottling lines in its Lagos Brewery. Presently the company has five Breweries.
(1) Lagos brewery established in 1946
(2) Aba brewery established in 1957
(3) Kaduna brewery established in 1983
(4) Ibadan brewery established in 1982
(5) Enugu brewery established in 1993
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This subject matter the effect of trade unionism and employers on workers performance in Nigerian is of interest to both governments and employers alike. The world over trade unionism which is the activities of an association of workers in a work place have been accepted and recognized as a necessary action. The action of trade union goes a long way in determining workers performance in an organization if workers are positively rewarded, the tendency is that those who have the ability will perform creditably.
Interestingly, a number of factors accounted for the rise of nationalism and the colonial master were a significant leverage for trade unionism. Another influence was the establishment of several branches among companies, which encouraged the system of plant level unionism. For instance, the Nigerian Breweries PLC has branches at Lagos and Enugu making it possible for trade unionism to flourish. These problems negatively affected the performance of employees. Aside from employee motivation and number of other factors, effective and positive workers performance in organization depends to a considerable extent on the incentive given to employees.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There has been a growing tension between the organizational management and trade union on the best approach by which workers performance in an organization would be achieved often agreements reached between management and unions have been breach leading to conflict in the workers performance in an organization. When the representatives of management and labour union meet to bargain, they discuss a variety of matters on which workers and management find it difficult to agree.
The following are some of the major issue:
(1) WAGES: Usually the topic most discuss is bargaining talk is wages. And if there is any thing likely to lead to a dispute between the union and the management. It is wages. Naturally, the management wants to keep production cost as low as the highest possible wages for its members.
(2) HOURS OF WORK: One of the first demands of union is reduction in the hours of work. Today a 40- hour work week is one of the labour goals. The argument for shouter work week is that it provides employment for more workers.
(3) FRINGE BENEFITS: In recent years fringe benefits have been almost as big as issues in collective bargaining as wages. Workers want gratuities pensions group of life and health insurance and unemployment benefits etc. like wages they are cost of production yet in general management is not opposed to providing fringe benefits. In bargaining over wages management argues that workers forget to include their fringe benefits in counting their wages.
(4) SENIORITY: Another point of difference between the labour and the management is seniority rights. The union wants seniority to determine the order of lay offs and promotions.
(5) THE UNION SHOP: A major source of conflict between trade union and management is the labour demand for a union shop. The reason why organized labour wants a union shop is because in business the benefits of collective bargaining usually management is opposed to a union shop limits management freedom in employing workers. Also a union shop strengthens the relationship between trade unionism and the management actions as it occur in Nigeria breweries PLC and the company’s performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims at finding out the modus operandi that is method of trade unionism in influencing workers performance. It will highlight other functions of trade unions that tend towards benefiting both organization and employee
It also seeks to examine the relationship between trade unionism and actions of the management. Efforts will also be made to see that worker performance will improve and a conducive working condition is being created.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is pertinent to pose some necessary research questions in order to have a defined direction and possibly proffer solutions to some arguments raised.
(i) What is the effect of trade unionism on workers performance?
(ii) How does management see trade unionism in the establishment?
(iii) Can trade unionism improve workers performance in the organization?
(iv) What should be done to improve the relationship between management and union to achieve workers performance?
(v) What in your own opinion in the issue between management and union that hinders workers performance in an organization?
(vi) What efforts have union made to improve the performance of workers in your organization?
(vii) Is there any relationship between the existence of trade union in Nigeria Breweries and the level of performance in the firm?
(viii) Is there no relationship between the attitude of trade union members and performance at work?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Organizations in the contemporary dispensation are aware that in order to ensure high workers performance, workers have to be comfortable. The comfort of workers lies on the terms and conditions of work, it is only when management and trade union come together that the terms and conditions of work are negotiated. Against this background the study will be of immense value to the trade unions and organizations as well as workers as a whole.
Through this study organizations will be able to know those factors that encourage cordial relationship between management and trade union. The identification of these factors will help an organization to maintain peace and harmony in the work place and bring about high performance. From this study organization will be able to know and address the issue between management and union and how to reach a compromise to achieve the organization objectives.
For the workers, it will help them to know their rights and also to know how to make their demands to avoid industrial conflict. For the government, the unionism, the growth of knowledge will improve in terms of the trade unionism. It will also help government to know how and when to meditate into management and union crisis. For the society at large peaceful work environment promote and also improve workers performance. This will lead to the development and growth of the society at large.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focus on trade unionism on workers performance in Nigerian breweries PLC located at Enugu state. Although at Enugu branch, because of the nonchalant attitude of some respondents in supplying necessary information required for the study apparently due to ignorance on the purpose of the study, despite the explanations given to them, made the study a little difficult.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is limited by time, the time factor makes it impossible for one to move about in order do interact with some notable union leaders. Also finance is another limitation because of each squeeze, financing of tripe to conduct interviews and administer questionnaire was not easy. Trips were therefore restricted to areas where one could afford to visit.
Information limitation is another limitation. The move to collect the necessary information for this work was the easy one. The reluctance of organization is discharging information about their internal operations was a difficult task in the course of this project work. It was a problem getting the published materials on this topic and this involved going from one library to another which was not easy.
The primary information gotten was through face to face interviews and questionnaires administered to the workers in Nigerian Breweries PLC Enugu, however this was obtained with much persuasion as the staffs, saw it as revealing the secret of the organization. The limitations not withstanding, the reacher was able to carry out a somewhat detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of this study, the under listed terms have been explained to enable the reader to understand the project with ease.
COLLECTION BARGAINING: This is negotiation between employers, workers and trade union for the purpose of discussion and making agreement on wages rates, working hours, conditions of work and other relevant matters.
PERFORMANCE: This is the ability of organization coupled with skills to carryout an assigned duty at the stipulated time in other to attain organizational objectives and goals.
TRADE UNIONISM: This is the system or principle of collective bargaining through trade unions.
ORANIZATION: This is a unit with certain resources and means having specific goals and objectives to achieve.
PRODUCTIVE: This can be defined as the act of being productive which is being able to produce. It can also be seen as a measurement of the efficiency of producing a ration of output to input.
WORKERS: According to Professor Agwu Kpala a workers is defined as any person (s) who works for fixed compensation. In business enterprise or government or institution but subordinate to the authority of the employees helping in any activity assigned him to produce goods and service for the owners profit or in the case of government as employees for increase on the wealth or well being of the community.
INCENTIVE: According to dictionary of management incentives is something that urges a person (s) to achieve some goals especially something external to the person who is urged.
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