1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The place and value of manpower planning as a resource for organizational productivity and success cannot be overemphasized, we are concerned business resources, the organization of physical and financial resources cannot take place until manpower are organized, and the effectiveness of the organizational scheme depend on the manner in which manpower are utilized. Every thing on power is a sense, therefore we do not organize physical ad financial resources we organized people who in turn are responsible for the utilization of resources. That concept of manpower, planning must be applied to all resources or face the probability that their resources will not be maximized. Indeed individual firms or organization cannot do without manpower, our knowledge of elementary economics inform us that labour (i.e. power) is the human effort, mental or physical exerted in the production of goods and services it is one of the very important factor of production; other are land, capital and entrepreneur (equally an aspect of manpower).
The realization of objective by organizations, private or public greatly depend on the skill, caliber, competence and experience of it work force. The point of emphasis here is that the success or failure of organisation is not unconnected with the manpower it recruits, maintain and develop in the course of its operational life. Interesting, of all the tasks of management, managing the human component in an organization is the central and most important task, because all management depend on how it is done this reveal the obvious fact that all the activities carried out, performed or engaged in by an organization as well as the nation are initiated, determined, planned, implemented and evaluated by the manpower. It is the realization of the important of manpower to national development and attainment of set organizational objective, that necessitated its planning and control.
Moore in 1980 defined manpower planning as a process which aim to ensure the efficient use of people. He further commented that manpower planning is concerned with making sure that the right number of workers are in the right place at the right time, possessing appropriate range of skill and expertise. Another group of scholars Torrighton et al gave their definition of manpower planning when they noted that the emphasis (of manpower planning) is on ensuring that the organization has the right number of people with the right skill in the right place at the right time. In every organization manpower planning activities can be visibly identified at three levels. These are policy level, planning level and operating level.
Policy Level: The various skill to be recruited and the method to be adopted for such recruitment exercise are formulated at this level other decision and activities include recommending method for generating storms and retrieving manpower information (i.e. manpower information system), formulating and developing a frame work for internal transfers, promotions, discipline and termination of employee and appointments and sourcing and allocating the required financial resources to execute manpower programmes and activities.
Planning level: This level involve activities like establishing recruitment system of the organization. Setting the standard criteria for selection of candidates fitting in place administrative procedure for provision of central information; and establishing systems for dealing with issues like internal transfer, promotions, discipline and termination of appointments.
Operating level: This level is actually responsible for implementation of issue decided at the policy level through the use of systems framework and settings established at the planning level. It includes interviewing both applicants for employment and existing employee, administering and conducting test of skill and aptitudes designing and placing advertisement for available job vacancies; establishing relationships with external sources of manpower supply’ and compiling human resources planning date. Meanwhile a number of factors serves as a constraints to the validity of manpower plan in an organization, these include:
Planning period: Time span to a certain extend affects manpower planning, the longer the period covered the higher the tendency for variance to exist between forecast and actual situation and vice –versa Kemembering that the aim of most manpower plans is to avoid minimist uncertainty of demand and supply of human resources, which is affected by changes occurring within the general and specific environment of organization.
Unpredictable nature of human asset: The human assets change like weather, hence passing a serious challenge to the prease study. Measurement or investigation (Krelter, 1999 p. 48) since human beings cannot be reduced to laboratory test and they constitute a key success factor, planning targets and aches, as a matter of necessity have to be adjusted and reviewed continuously as the occasion demands.
Uncertainty in General business environment: The realities of changes, which occur frequently in both the external and internal environment of business organization reveal the general nature of planning which is uncertainty (Kreithner, Ibid, p. 162). Meaning that manpower planning is a continues never-ending process demand reviews, adjustments, and readjustment of goal and expectation. Thus flexibility in planning becomes vital in order to attain established organizational objective.
Unification of manpower planning approaches: Another obvious limitation of manpower planning is the inability to arrive at a consensus on a single line of approach/practice in organizations such an approach should systematically focus on identification of future manpower needs and problems as may be occasioned by the fast changing environment of business.
The need for manpower planning: It is very important to note that organizations need to plan for how to deal with the problems of advancement in technology of production, information technology and computerization as it affects how jobs are to be performed in organization and by whom. Focus on manpower planning is base on the fact that every departments in an organization need to be catered for in term of their manpower need. It is also becoming increasingly challenging to train manpower for all occupational types in view of the impact of information and technological advancements and computer jet age syndrome. Every organization are interested in adequate coordination of all unit and departments hence effective manpower planning must be put in place. And now the cost of labour in an organization is on the increase these past year, therefore organizations must adequately and carefully planned to ensure attainment of optimal result. It is also very important to focus on the relevance of manpower planning on organization.
Manpower planning provides information relevant for conducting a successful training programme, making possible a purposeful retraining and development of existing manpower such training programmes should not only be related to present job requirements, but equally to future job requirements from the point of view of bother organizational development and individual skills development. The integration of manpower planning into the overall business or organizational planning process will generate information that can reveal the true cost of future development for example if a company is planning to introduce a new service facility or better still introducing enhanced staffing allowances and incentives the true cost could be easily arrived at using manpower planning tools, overestimation of cost will reflect an unrealistic expensive venture thus discouraging its introduction, while and under estimation in this case will make the new facility or product unrealistically cheap. The implication is operating either at a loss or at a disadvantaged angle should the facility or product be introduced. Finally effective manpower planning can also ease the difficulties of recruitment. It should be remembered that recruitment is equally a costly and time consuming activity similarly delays in recruitment have the tendency of destroying staff morale. Hence manpower planning at this point is expected to highlight not only the turnover patterns but as well indicate possible factors responsible for such.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
One of the problem confronting management in any organization is the effective way of matching people with jobs. The perenia question that experts often ask is whether we should design job to suit the individual or get the individual fit into a job position, before this question is answered, it is to observed that one of the function of management is to determine it manpower need. “The process by which management attempt to provide for it human resources to accomplish its task” is called manpower planning, all enterprises must plan their manpower formally or informally.
Manpower is necessary in all organizations it will be difficult to know the number of personnel required for recruitment to be reassigned, due for retirement or that need to be retained for better utilization. Manpower planning reduces excessive recruitment, training and transfers and thereby save management cost and time. BRUCECOLEMAN in his work “AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR MANPOWER PLANNING” observed that the major changes in population, technology Renovation and size complexity of organization have made informed method of employment planning absolute for all but very small and stable organization. Uncertainty in general business environment, the realities of changes, which occur frequently in both the external and internal environment of business organization, reveal the general nature of planning which is uncertainly. KREITHNER, IBID, p. 162 meaning that manpower planning is a continues never – ending process, demanding reviews, adjustments readjustment of goals and expectation. Thus flexibility in planning become vital in order to attain established organization objective.
Unpredictable nature of human asset, the human assets changes like weather, hence posing a serious challenge to the precise study, measurement or investigation KREITHNER 1999 P. 48 since human being cannot be reduce to laboratory test and they constitute a key success factor planning targets and aches as a matter of necessity have to be adjusted and reviewed continuously as the occasion demand. Unification of manpower planning approaches, another obvious limitation of manpower planning is the inability to arrive at a consensus on a single line of approach/practice in organization such an approach should systematically focus on the identification of future manpower need and problems, as may be occasioned by the fast changing environment of business.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The researcher of this study is of the view that manpower is very important factor on organization performance in Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna. It is a major tool Management uses to implement its good objective which are geared toward the survival of the organization, manpower would not be of any value if it is not productive. The aim and objectives is to examine the effect of manpower planning on organization performance in Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna.
- The researcher work will aid the organization identify its lapses and study it in regard to manpower planning.
- It will also aid in identifying the operational factor which hampers the effective and efficient manpower planning of the organization on manpower planning as it affect organization performance.
- To encourage a good match between manpower recruitment and manpower requirement
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The research has chosen to formulate the following hypothesis base on the data collected
HO: That proper manpower planning has no effect on organization performance.
H1: That proper manpower planning has positive effect on organization performance.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to show the significant of manpower in an organization and indicate how it helps to improve organization performance. There is no gainsaying the fact that human resources or manpower is a vital asset to an organization it is worth noting however that it is an expensive asset demanding the application of policies and strategies that will lead to the recovery of amount invested and as well gurantee optimal return on investment. Therefore, this study will be of tremendous help to both public and private organization to focus on effective manpower planning to achieve organization goals and objective and its also serves as academic discipline for other research.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study is intended to cover the effect of manpower, planning on organization performance in Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Kaduna. Also lack of cooperation from the staff and mostly importantly, lack of encouragement by the management of the organization and administrative bottlenecks acted as impediments to this study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Manpower: Is the Human effort, mental or physical, exerted in the production of goods and services.
Planning: Is a process concerned with defining ends, means and conduct of every level of organizational life. It is a management activity which begins by defining the aim and objective of the organization.
Organization: Is the process of dividing work into convenient task or duties by creating and maintaining like group to achieve specific objective.
Manpower planning: Manpower planning is a process which aims to ensure the efficient use of people through making sure that the right number of workers are in the right place at the right time, possessing appropriate range of skills and expertise. Manpower planning seeks to maintain and improve an organization ability to achieve corporate objective by developing strategies which are design to increase the present and future contribution of manpower.
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