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EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION DAMAGE FUNCTION REGULATION AND IMPLIMENTATION AND ITS SUITABILITIES IN THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE NIGERIA OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

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EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION DAMAGE FUNCTION REGULATION AND IMPLIMENTATION AND ITS SUITABILITIES IN THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE NIGERIA OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The oil and gas industry is truly global, with operations con­ducted in every corner of the globe, from Alaska to Australia, from Peru to China, and in every habitat from Arctic to desert, from tropical rainforest to temperate woodland, from mangrove to offshore.

The global community will rely heavily on oil and gas supplies for the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption in 1994 stood at nearly 8000 million tonnes of oil equivalents (BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 1995); oil and gas represented 63 per cent of world energy supply, with coal providing 27 per cent, nuclear energy 7 per cent and hydro-electric 3 per cent. The challenge is to meetworld energy demands, whilst minimizing adverse impact on the environment by conforming to current good practice.

The exploitation of oil and gas reserves has not always been without some ecological side effects. Oil spills, damaged land, accidents and fires, and incidents of air and water pollution have all been recorded at various times and places. In recent times the social impact of operations, espe­cially in remote communities, has also attracted attention. The oil and gas industry has worked for a long time to meet the challenge of providing environmental protection. Much has already been achieved but the industry recognizes that even more can be accomplished.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992—'The Earth Summit'—focused world attention on the close links that exist between the environment and socio­economic development. The Summit reviewed global envir­onmental issues and resulted in two conventions (theFramework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity), as well as the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21—plan of action. The centralmessage of Agenda 21 is one of interdependence and cross- sector partnership, and the plan of action provided a new approach to the wide-ranging socio-economic and environ­mental challenges facing the world community.

The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gas exploration and production industry are manifested at both local and global levels. They include: habitat protection and biodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contami­nation. The industry has responded to these issues. The chal­lenge is to ensure that all operations conform to current good practice.

The continual evolution of the environmental agenda must also be taken into account. Industry places much emphasis on establishing effective management systems and has gone a long way to ensure that environmental issues are key components of corporate culture, with the issues related to health, safety and environment often being considered together, because they have much in common.

The Plant commenced operations with a total number of 1,376 staff, made up of 138 expatriates Technical Back-Up Services (TBS), and 1,246 Nigerian Staff.

However, in 1999 EPCL started a gradual phase-out of the TBS Personnel as most Nigerian staff gained adequate experience on the operation and maintenance of the Plants.

At 138 expatriate TBS Personnel the cost of about $2 million per month was abominable as it had negative impact on the cost of operations and cash flow for the Company. Today, the cost stands at about $0.64 million for 43 TBS Personnel.

Historically, the Eleme Petrochemicals Complex Project was started in the Project Engineering Division of the NNPC under Mr. S. A. Kufeji as the General Manager, championed by Dr. E. I.Onyia, as Manager Petrochemicals.

In early 1982, the Petrochemicals Division of the NNPC was created, with Mr. 0. 0. Lolomari as the General Manager, while Dr. E. I. Onyia continued his lead push for the petrochemicals programme. Later that year, NNPC signed the Consultancy Agreement with Foster Wheeler International Corporation of Reading, UK.

Following a major re-organization of NNPC in October 1985, Dr.T. M. John was appointed the co-ordinator of the Petrochemical Sector. During another restructuring of the NNPC in 1988, Dr. T. M. John became the first Managing Director of Eleme Petrochemicals Company Limited (EPCL).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Air pollution has been becoming a necessary evil with rapid industrialization and urbanization around the world, after it results in kinds of human health problems, such as ophthalmic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002; Giles et al., 2011; Gudmundsson, 2011;Jamrozik & Musk, 2011; Miller et al., 2007; Nandasena, 2010). The direst threat posted by air pollution may be its hard controlling caused by its strong flowability. Either could it be spread from one source location to a larger region, even the whole planet, and the sweeping radiation pollution in air originated from Fukushima in Japan is unfortunately in this case, or conversely diluted with changes of climatic conditions (Sample, 2007).

 

Among all types of treatments of contaminants, including microbial bioremediation, phytoremediation stands out for its benefits yielded from self-maintaining, soil stabilization and other advantages to meet greater public approval (Doty et al., 2007). And different phytoremediation process is responsible for specific pollutant. Air pollutants can be divided into anthropogenic and natural pollutants according to their sources, or primary and secondary pollutants, which stem from reactions of primary pollutants, when taking production process into account (UNEP, 2004).

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this element of industrial fire engineering in the prevention of fire haroccus are as below:

• To provide an orderly emergency response plan for all industrial workers.

• To ensure all exit routes, emergency staircases are not obstructed and can be used in an orderly fashion during emergencies.

• To ensure fast, organised and smooth evacuation of industry during emergencies.

• To train fire engineers and emergency evacuation officers to conduct their duties successfully.

• To test the working conditions and effectiveness of all fire and emergency equipment for all industrys in Imo State.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of environmental issues in the oil and gas exploration and pro­duction industry, and of the best approaches to achieving high environmental performance in all parts of the world. It should be noted that it covers only exploration and produc­tion activities and does not discuss large scale storage and transportation issues, or downstream processing. Nor does itattempt to cover social development issues in detail, although they are mentioned as important elements in the text, alongside ecological issues.

This document provides an overview for key stakehold­ers in industry and government.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a proposition that is stated in testable form and prediction of particular relationship between two or more variables.

Ho:   There is no significant relationship between Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in agro allied industry

Hi:    There is great significant relationship between Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in agro allied industry

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions will be treated in the course of this research work thus:

1. What types of work are most likely to pose fire outbreak in the industry?

2. Can carelessness of the industrial workers in the industry result to fire outbreak

3. If yes what are the factors?

4. Can we control fire outbreak in our industry?

7. Do you believe that Ergonomic specification help in the control fire outbreak in the industry?

RESEARCH LIMITATION

 

A work of this nature is not easy to consummate or accomplish. And, as a result of financial problem, time constraints, apathly on the part of respondents and bureaucratic procedures involved in releasing data seriously affected the study.  

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EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION DAMAGE FUNCTION REGULATION AND IMPLIMENTATION AND ITS SUITABILITIES IN THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE NIGERIA OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

 

ABSTRACT

The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gasexploration and production industry are manifested at bothlocal and global levels. They include: habitat protection andbiodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contami­nation. Research Methodology: The aim of this chapter is to briefly intimate the reader with various research designs used by the researchers. And Chi-square were used to analyse the techniques used.

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data: This chapter deals with the presentations, analysis and interpretation of the da8ta collected. The data collected will be used to answer the research questions and test the hypothesis.

In conclusion have gone ahead to erect effective legal regimes in the form of laws and regulations to control and reduce this environmental menace.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The oil and gas industry is truly global, with operations con­ducted in every corner of the globe, from Alaska to Australia, from Peru to China, and in every habitat from Arctic to desert, from tropical rainforest to temperate woodland, from mangrove to offshore.

The global community will rely heavily on oil and gas supplies for the foreseeable future. World primary energy consumption in 1994 stood at nearly 8000 million tonnes of oil equivalents (BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 1995); oil and gas represented 63 per cent of world energy supply, with coal providing 27 per cent, nuclear energy 7 per cent and hydro-electric 3 per cent. The challenge is to meetworld energy demands, whilst minimizing adverse impact on the environment by conforming to current good practice.

The exploitation of oil and gas reserves has not always been without some ecological side effects. Oil spills, damaged land, accidents and fires, and incidents of air and water pollution have all been recorded at various times and places. In recent times the social impact of operations, espe­cially in remote communities, has also attracted attention. The oil and gas industry has worked for a long time to meet the challenge of providing environmental protection. Much has already been achieved but the industry recognizes that even more can be accomplished.

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992—'The Earth Summit'—focused world attention on the close links that exist between the environment and socio­economic development. The Summit reviewed global envir­onmental issues and resulted in two conventions (theFramework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity), as well as the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21—plan of action. The centralmessage of Agenda 21 is one of interdependence and cross- sector partnership, and the plan of action provided a new approach to the wide-ranging socio-economic and environ­mental challenges facing the world community.

The broad environmental issues faced by the oil and gas exploration and production industry are manifested at both local and global levels. They include: habitat protection and biodiversity, air emissions, marine and freshwater discharges,incidents and oil spills, and soil and groundwater contami­nation. The industry has responded to these issues. The chal­lenge is to ensure that all operations conform to current good practice.

The continual evolution of the environmental agenda must also be taken into account. Industry places much emphasis on establishing effective management systems and has gone a long way to ensure that environmental issues are key components of corporate culture, with the issues related to health, safety and environment often being considered together, because they have much in common.

The Plant commenced operations with a total number of 1,376 staff, made up of 138 expatriates Technical Back-Up Services (TBS), and 1,246 Nigerian Staff.

However, in 1999 EPCL started a gradual phase-out of the TBS Personnel as most Nigerian staff gained adequate experience on the operation and maintenance of the Plants.

At 138 expatriate TBS Personnel the cost of about $2 million per month was abominable as it had negative impact on the cost of operations and cash flow for the Company. Today, the cost stands at about $0.64 million for 43 TBS Personnel.

Historically, the Eleme Petrochemicals Complex Project was started in the Project Engineering Division of the NNPC under Mr. S. A. Kufeji as the General Manager, championed by Dr. E. I.Onyia, as Manager Petrochemicals.

In early 1982, the Petrochemicals Division of the NNPC was created, with Mr. 0. 0. Lolomari as the General Manager, while Dr. E. I. Onyia continued his lead push for the petrochemicals programme. Later that year, NNPC signed the Consultancy Agreement with Foster Wheeler International Corporation of Reading, UK.

Following a major re-organization of NNPC in October 1985, Dr.T. M. John was appointed the co-ordinator of the Petrochemical Sector. During another restructuring of the NNPC in 1988, Dr. T. M. John became the first Managing Director of Eleme Petrochemicals Company Limited (EPCL).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Air pollution has been becoming a necessary evil with rapid industrialization and urbanization around the world, after it results in kinds of human health problems, such as ophthalmic, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002; Giles et al., 2011; Gudmundsson, 2011;Jamrozik & Musk, 2011; Miller et al., 2007; Nandasena, 2010). The direst threat posted by air pollution may be its hard controlling caused by its strong flowability. Either could it be spread from one source location to a larger region, even the whole planet, and the sweeping radiation pollution in air originated from Fukushima in Japan is unfortunately in this case, or conversely diluted with changes of climatic conditions (Sample, 2007).

 

Among all types of treatments of contaminants, including microbial bioremediation, phytoremediation stands out for its benefits yielded from self-maintaining, soil stabilization and other advantages to meet greater public approval (Doty et al., 2007). And different phytoremediation process is responsible for specific pollutant. Air pollutants can be divided into anthropogenic and natural pollutants according to their sources, or primary and secondary pollutants, which stem from reactions of primary pollutants, when taking production process into account (UNEP, 2004).

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this element of industrial fire engineering in the prevention of fire haroccus are as below:

• To provide an orderly emergency response plan for all industrial workers.

• To ensure all exit routes, emergency staircases are not obstructed and can be used in an orderly fashion during emergencies.

• To ensure fast, organised and smooth evacuation of industry during emergencies.

• To train fire engineers and emergency evacuation officers to conduct their duties successfully.

• To test the working conditions and effectiveness of all fire and emergency equipment for all industrys in Imo State.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of environmental issues in the oil and gas exploration and pro­duction industry, and of the best approaches to achieving high environmental performance in all parts of the world. It should be noted that it covers only exploration and produc­tion activities and does not discuss large scale storage and transportation issues, or downstream processing. Nor does itattempt to cover social development issues in detail, although they are mentioned as important elements in the text, alongside ecological issues.

This document provides an overview for key stakehold­ers in industry and government.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a proposition that is stated in testable form and prediction of particular relationship between two or more variables.

Ho:   There is no significant relationship between Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in agro allied industry

Hi:    There is great significant relationship between Ergonomic specification and the control of industrial accident rate in agro allied industry

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions will be treated in the course of this research work thus:

1. What types of work are most likely to pose fire outbreak in the industry?

2. Can carelessness of the industrial workers in the industry result to fire outbreak

3. If yes what are the factors?

4. Can we control fire outbreak in our industry?

7. Do you believe that Ergonomic specification help in the control fire outbreak in the industry?

RESEARCH LIMITATION

 

A work of this nature is not easy to consummate or accomplish. And, as a result of financial problem, time constraints, apathly on the part of respondents and bureaucratic procedures involved in releasing data seriously affected the study.  

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EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSION DAMAGE FUNCTION REGULATION AND IMPLIMENTATION AND ITS SUITABILITIES IN THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE NIGERIA OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

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