Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 67  |  2653 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000







Housing has a central importance to quality of life with considerable economic, social, cultural and personal significance. Though a country’s national prosperity is usually measured in economic terms, increasing wealth is of diminished value unless all can share its benefits and if the growing wealth is not used to redress growing social deficiencies, one of which is housing (Erguden, 2001). Housing plays a huge role in revitalizing economic growth in any country, with shelter being among key indicators of development (Ireri, 2010).  The universal declaration of human rights gives one of the basic human rights as the right to a decent standard of living, central to which is the access to adequate housing (United Nations, The Human Rights – article 25, 1948). Housing as a basic human right demands that urban dwellers should have access to decent housing, defined as one that provides a foundation for, rather than being a barrier to, good physical and mental health, personal development and the fulfillment of life objectives (Seedhouse, 1986). The focus of this research is housing for low income households or what is commonly known as affordable housing. Affordable housing is a term used to describe dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed “affordable” to those that have a median income. A median income refers to the average pay scale level of the majority people in a population which is often low. Although the term “affordable housing” is often applied to rental housing that is within the financial means of those in the lower income ranges of a geographical area, the concept is applicable to both renters and purchasers in all income ranges. Low-income housing is aimed at individuals without enough income to provide adequate housing for themselves and/or their families. These families are usually unable to purchase a home because they fail to qualify for a mortgage.

Housing is a major problem in Nigeria especially in Makurdi. Millions of people are living in the sprawling slums and also in other informal settlements. Informal settlements and slums in Makurdi have continued to grow at an alarming rate in number as well as in population. Table 1.1 shows the growth in informal settlements in  Makurdi between the year 2011 and 2015.

Table 1.1 Growth in Informal Settlements in Makurdi.

Year No. of informal


Population. % of urban population. 2011 36 167,000 33 2012 50 200,000 40 – 50 2013 78 789,991 55 2015 134 1,886,166 60

Source: Benue State Urban Archives, 2015.

“Informal settlements” is a generic and technical term that seeks to capture the many different features of those settlements that house many of the urban poor in developing countries. The name implies the dominant feature of such settlements is their informality – the fact that they develop outside the existing legal and regulatory framework. The informal settlements are sometimes called “unplanned” or “spontaneous” settlements, which is misleading, since many informal settlements are planned, albeit not in a conventional way, and are not all spontaneous (World Bank, 2003). Demand for housing far surpasses its supply in Nigeria, especially in urban areas that have for long suffered from poor planning, resulting in an increase in informal settlements with poor housing and little infrastructure services. The housing market in Nigeria has over the years faced a huge supply challenge for both government and private sector players. With availability of about 35,000 housing units in urban areas, the deficit remains huge from a growing demand of 150,000 units every year (Terkula, 2010).

Despite some attempts at achieving decent housing for Nigerians, Nigeria has, on the whole, failed to address the dire housing conditions of her population. The situation has been partially alleviated through the activities of the private sector housing developers, who have been a key supplier of housing, particularly in Makurdi (Benue State Urban Archives, 2009). In the year 2010, the private sector commenced construction of housing units worth Kshs. 9.8 billion and registered growth of 6.9% over the previous year (Statistical Abstract, 2008). But despite intensive overall private-sector activity, these private developers have mainly concentrated in the middle and upper segments of the market with relatively little focus on the low-income market. The low income house units currently constitutes less than 30% of the private development portfolio (Economic survey, 2010), yet this is the segment where the need is particularly acute.

In the past, the government took up the role of housing supplier by controlling planning, land allocation, and development and maintaining housing estates. The government has being charged with the responsibility of providing subsidized housing and implementing government housing policies and programmes through tenant purchase, mortgages, rental and  rural housing  loan  schemes. The  National Housing Corporation was formed  as  part  of  Nigeria’s  post  colonial  housing  policy,  underscoring  the  importance  of providing decent shelter for all urban workers in the country (Benue State Urban Archives, 2009).

NGO’s have come in to fill in the gap in the housing shortage especially for the low income households. Banks also introduced loans to enable building of infrastures especialy houses for rents and this NGO’s and private individuals  are now engaged in a low cost housing development project for its members, and the public.

Other NGO’s involved in policy making and assisting developers in this sector include: National Urban Forum (Nigeria), African Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development (AMCHUD). These housing developers focusing on the low income market cannot adequately meet the needs of the market unless more players from the private sector join in.

There are five models of housing development for low income housing initiatives (World Bank, 2011):

Sites plus development plan and gradual implementation of services – settlements are planned and surveyed, lots allocated and occupied, and infrastructure gradually implemented. Sites and services – mass production of serviced sites in large schemes for resettlement of urban squatters, usually in peripheral land in city outskirts and with basic starter housing units. Comprehensive upgrading  of  existing  settlements  –  wide  range  of  improvements involving different types of infrastructure according to predefined area plan; this is integrated upgrading but undertaken in one go, usually in a two year time frame. Development of new housing in new settlement – new infrastructure and housing units are built on empty land; or new housing units on available land in existing serviced areas. Redevelopment of  degraded  existing  structures  –  agreement  reached  with  building landlords for building renovation.

The Rwanda government for example has adopted the model of developing new housing settlements for her population. They have initiated the Imidugudu project. Imidugudu is an 80 household settlement that was set up in 2002, to accommodate refugees who had returned mainly from Burundi. They are grouped settlements modeled along the lines of Israel’s Kibbutz. The model is being replicated in the whole of Rwanda to accommodate her population decently (Rwanda Report, 2010).


Provision of adequate, affordable and decent housing for low income households is clearly in short supply. The players in this industry are too few and there seems to be a minimal interest of other private sector housing developers to provide low income housing units. These private sector developers as by their success in the middle and high income housing markets, implies that they may have the capacity and skill set to supply the low-income housing required to alleviate, at least partly, the housing shortfall in the country (Benue State Urban Archives, 2009). But they have shied away from the low income market mainly because the profitability margins are lower as compared to housing developments for the other markets.

There are also many other factors affecting the supply of housing from private sector housing developers prominent of which is the cost of production and the opportunity cost to the developer’s finite funds in either providing middle income housing or high income segment housing or low income housing. The developers have to consider the rate of return to their investment and how fast they’ll realize this. But these are not the only factors affecting the supply of low income housing and the other factors should also be put into consideration. Provision of low cost housing to the increasing number of lower and middle income classes in the country has also been hugely affected by the cost of land and inadequate infrastructure (Terkula, 2010).

The problem that this research seeks to address is that of the shortage in housing supply for low income households and the challenges faced by both existing and potential developers in this market. Issues to be addressed in this research study include the factors affecting low income housing supply, the motivating factor to existing developers in venturing into this market and the housing models they have adopted in their projects.



Not The Topic You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373

+233 55 397 8005


  • Click on the Download Button above.
  • Select any option to get the complete project immediately.
  • Chat with Our Instant Help Desk on +234 813 292 6373 for further assistance.
  • All projects on our website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Adam Alhassan Yakubu
Excellent work and delivery , I promise to share my testimonies everyone in need of this kind of work. You're the best
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Uduak From Uniuyo
IProjectMaster is the best project site for students. Their works are unique and free of plagiarism!
Abubakar Iliyasu Hashim
Federal college of education pankshin affiliated to university of jos
I am highly impressed with your unquantifiable efforts for the leaners, more grace to your elbow.I will inform my colleagues about your website.
Very Good
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Abdulrazak Bello Marsha
Usman Dan fodio University
It was quite a better guide for project and paper presentation purpoting. Many thanks.
Peace From Unilag
I cried not knowing how to go about my project but the day i searched online and saw iprojectmaster, i called and got my full project in less than 15minutes, i was shocked!



Simply click on the Download button above and follow the procedure stated.

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can I get this complete project on THE CHALLENGES OF HOUSING FOR THE LOW INCOME EARNERS?

Within 15 minutes if you want this exact project topic without adjustment

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

What if I want to change the case study for THE CHALLENGES OF HOUSING FOR THE LOW INCOME EARNERS, What do i do?

Chat with Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How will I get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 813 292 6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!