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EXAMINATION OF NOISE POLLUTION

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 84  |  2763 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Noise is not often thought as a pollutant, but unwanted sound (noise) can seriously degrade the quantity of life, the acceptance of noise by people obviously depends on the individual, but it has been legislated on levels of sound acceptable to the community. (Agbalagba, 2017). The level of noise deemed to be acceptable is dependent upon The type of environment: acceptable levels of surroundings noise are affected by the type of activity, A library, for, has different requirements to those on a factory floor Frequency structure: different noises contain different frequencies and some frequencies are found to be more annoying than lower frequency rumbles. Duration: a short period of high level noise is less likely to annoy than a long period. Different people have different hearing sensitivities, but average values can be measured and provide a map of the sound that the human ear can detect, the threshold of hearing is the weakest sound that the average human hearing can detect, the threshold varies slightly with the individual, but it is remarkably low, there is also high threshold, the threshold of pain, which is the strongest sound that the human ear can tolerate.

Absolute measurements of sound intensity can be expressed in either Wm-2 or in sound pressure pa, but such units do not correspond directly to the way in which the human ear responds to sound levels, since the human ear has a non-linear response to the energy content of sound, a logarithm scale is used to describe the response of the ear, it is converted to sound level measured in decibels. (Agbalagba, 2017). 

There are many vulnerable groups of people who are most affected by noise Pollution such as the young, elderly, and the hospitalized. Young children are unable to protect their hearing and rely on their parents to keep them from constant exposure. Similarly, the elderly may not have the capabilities to protect their hearing if they are disabled by mental or physical illness. Patients in the hospital are not safe from the effects of noise as well. Patients who are in the hospital especially for orthopedic surgeries may be exposed to loud instruments during a procedure although they are not protected from it while under anesthesia. Noise has numerous health effects making noise pollution a public health concern although it has not been well addressed. To name a few, these effects include elevated blood pressure, noiseinduced hearing loss, sleep disorders, and irritability. (Isabelle lane, 2000). Noise is a disturbance to the human environment that is escalating at such a high rate that it will become a major threat to the quality of human lives. In the past thirty years, noises in all areas, especially in urban areas, have been increasing rapidly. There are numerous effects on the human environment due to the increase in noise pollution. Slowly, insensibly, we seem to accept noise and the physiological and psychological deterioration that accompanies it as an inevitable part of our lives. Although we attempt to set standards for some of the most major sources of noise, we often are unable to monitor them. Major sources of noise can be airplanes at takeoff and landing, and a truck just off the assembly line, yet we seem accept and enjoy countless other sounds, from hard rock music to loud Harley Davidson motor cycles (Nunez, 2000). Sudden and unexpected noise has been observed to produce marked changes in the body, such as increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, and muscular contractions. Moreover, digestion, stomach contractions, and the flow of saliva and gastric juices all stop. Because the changes are so marked, repeated exposure to unexpected noise should obviously be kept to a minimum. These changes fortunately wear off as a person becomes accustomed to the noise. 

However, even when a person is accustomed to an environment where the noise level is high, physiological changes occur (Broadbent, 1957). Almost everyone has had one experience of being temporarily "deafened" by a loud noise. This "deafness" in not permanent, although it is often accompanied by a ringing in the ears, and one can hear another person if he raises his voice. Likewise, normal hearing comes back within a few hours at most. This sort of partial hearing loss is called Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS) (Bugliarello, 1976). Noise is one of the most pervasive problems, penetrating all areas of human activity all symbols of civilization from jet planes, vehicles and railway engines, to factories generators, demolition and construction, television and radio, public address system and public voice have one thing in common, it is noise. The man made activities are responsible for the increase in the ambient noise level particularly in the urban areas (Sapru, et al., 1987). (Bansal, 1996) reported noise level status of Bhopal city during 1994.Noise level in the sensitive areas of Bhopal was in the range of 32 dB(A) to 78dB(A) during daytime, while during night time it was in the range of 30dB(A) to 60 dB(A). In these areas about 43.3% values were found exceeding the limit of dB (A) during night time.
1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
There have been many articles published about noise as a pollutants, in commercial environment, industrial environment, traffic and schooling environment etc. and all point in the same direction emphasizing noise as a form of pollution, but one area of noise pollution especially from our religion houses have not been given a close look at, there are many types of denominations today in our religion houses such as the Pentecostal churches which include Christ apostolic church (C.A.C.), Omega fire ministry and Mountain of fire and Miracle Ministry etc. and the authordous churches which include Catholic Church, Methodists and Baptist church etc. statistics has shown that many new generational churches are prone to generate a lot of noise which arises from their public address system and the kind of attitude or style of worship demonstrated by some of the religion worship centres may also contribute to increase in noise. some churches in our today society hold series of programs all through the working days including Sunday services even at times all through the night hours which was made for rest and sleep, and there are residential houses around this religion houses, which some have being victims exposed to such noise emanating from the public address system of some of the religion houses. let’s take a study on worshipers who attends some of the religion worship centres on daily basis including the infants, young and old, statistics has shown that majority of worshipers under this age have partial deafness or other health side-effects due to high exposure of sound emanating from such public address system, couple with their style of worship that suites them. The fact still holds that any sound that is above human perspective of hearing is known as noise. I.e. any sound above 90 dB, is called noise. There have been regulated agency put in place from our governments and other non-governmental bodies such as The National Environmental Noise Standards and Control Regulations (NENSCR) and The National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA). Etc. which have help to access noise as a pollutant and its adverse effects on our environment and providing means of controlling and reducing them by putting in place a specific permissible noise level standards for any environment consisting of commercial, residential and industrial places. Etc. and thereby penalizing its offenders for non-compliance. In recent times the subject on noise has not been so emphasized, especially in religion houses e.g. churches, due to the negligence of man to look into it critically, hence I delight to carry out my research on the subject of noise level in religion houses within Zaria and its environs in order to ascertain a well detailed description of noise in our religion houses and how such noise can be controlled and reduced to the minimum level. 
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact on environmental noise that has Occurred already with the following objectives:

1. To assess the quality of sound instrument used by various religion houses.

2. To ascertain the existing noise level of various churches within Zaria and environ.
3. To assess the extent of noise pollution generated during church services. 
4. To know the effects of noise pollution caused by noise within our Environment.
5. To provide preventive and control measures on noise generated within our Environment.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers Zaria Metropolis. Within the limit of the scope, various noise levels from industrial, commercial, educational/institutional, residential, recreational and religious areas and a control area at Angwan Fulani will be sourced and evaluated.

1.5. Limitation of the Study

Every research has one limitation or the other; certainly, the greatest limitation for this study was lack of sophisticated equipment’s, finance and duration/period of the assessment/analysis and possible means of being in all the sample points/fields the same time.

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