Select Currency
Translate this page

ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 80  |  4057 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES AT DUTSIN-MA TOWN, DUTSIN-MA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KATSINA STATE

 

ABSTRACT

Radon is one of the sources of nuclear contamination in water and the largest contributor of the total radiation received by the general public from natural radioactive sources. Human exposure to high doses of radon through inhalation as gas or ingestion in water can lead to cancer. In this present work, the activity concentrations of Radon-222 (222 Rn) were investigated from fifteen (15) water samples collected at different locations within Dutsin-Ma town, Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State using Liquid Scintillation Counter. The concentrations of Radon were found to range from (11.67-152.81⁄), (0.61-172.25⁄) and (21.98-47.17⁄) with mean values of 64.66⁄, 41.15⁄and 34.57⁄for Borehole, open well and Earth-Dam respectively. The results were compared with the world average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10⁄set by World Health Organization and it was noted that 86.67% of the samples exceeded the value with 20% of the samples above the World recommended reference level of 100/. Also, the Annual Effective Doses due to ingestion of Radon in water for the three (3) categories of people were estimated from the measured radon concentrations and their mean values were found to be (0.472, 0.944, 3.304)/ in borehole water, (0.308, 0.616, 2.156)/ in well water and (0.252, 0.504, 1.764)/in surface water (Earth-Dam) for adults, children and infants respectively. All the mean values of the annual effective doses were above the recommended level of 0.1/set by World Health Organization as such it is recommended that the inhabitant of Dutsin-Ma town should always boil their water irrespective of it source before drinking so as to keep the concentration of Radon as low as reasonably achievable. Beside, further studies on the activity concentration of radon in water sources from Dutsin-Ma environs and other parts of Katsina State be carried out so as to determine the fitness of the water for consumption or otherwise.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Water is the major constituent of the Earth’s streams, lakes and oceans and the fluid of most living organisms. It covers about 71% of the Earth surface. It is vital for all known forms of life especially man. Man uses water for various reasons such as transportation, power generation, Agriculture and other domestic activities hence its availability and quality as regard radiological, microbiological, chemical and any other form of contamination are delicate and vital issues (Garba et al., 2008). Unfortunately, access to potable drinking water in most developing countries such as Nigeria is a major challenge hence most people rely heavily on untreated surface and ground water sources for consumption.

For instance, Dutsin-Ma local Government Area of Katsina State where its inhabitant rely solely on untreated groundwater sources (well and borehole) as well as surface water source. This is because there are only few available pipe born water sources and in most places where such sources are available they are not operational. The Zobe dam located in Dutsin-Ma which is intended to remediate this problem is yet to be completed by the government (Isah, 2009). It is therefore important to investigate the radiological content of ground and surface water sources in Dutsin-Ma town so as to determine it fitness for consumption.

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive inert gas with a half-life of 3.82 days which is a member of the Uranium decay series (Somlai, 2007). It contributes the largest proportion of the total radiation from natural sources. Studies have shown that Radon-222 (222Rn) and its progeny contribute about 50% of the total effective dose equivalent from natural sources. Radon-222 is soluble in water. The concentration of radon in water is due to the decay of Radium-226 associated with the rock and soil. The Radon-222 gas penetrates through soil and rocks and dissolves in water (Xinwei, 2006). Normally, drinking water from ground water sources has higher concentration of radon than surface water.

The exposure of a population to high concentration of radon and its daughters for a long period has significant health effects ranging from respiratory functional changes to cancer of the lungs (BEIR, 1999). Also a very high level of radon in drinking water can lead to stomach and gastrointestinal tract cancer (Kendel and Smith, 2002). In Nigeria, most areas lack established data on the activity concentration of Radon-222. Dutsin-Ma town, Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State is one of such areas from the survey of literature and Author’s knowledge, despite the fact that most of its inhabitant rely heavily on untreated surface and groundwater sources for drinking, agriculture and their domestic activities. Since its geology revealed that it is enriched in granite, it is possible that the concentrations of radon in both surface and groundwater sources in Dutsin-Ma town are higher than normal. This research seeks to address the problem of lack of baseline data/information on the activity concentration of Radon-222 in Dutsin-Ma town, Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State, Nigeria.

Our investigation reveals that access to potable source of water has remained one of the major challenges for most people as well as animals in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State as such majority rely on untreated surface and ground water sources for consumption. This is quite dangerous since the geology of Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Katsina State (figure 7), revealed that it is highly enriched in granites and gneisses as studies have shown that high activity concentration of Radon-222 is associated with areas rich in granite (David et al., 1989; Gilbert, 1988). As such, the level of Radon-222 in drinking water which, in high concentration, can lead to a significant risk of stomach and gastrointestinal tract cancer (Zhuo et al., 2001), among others, need to be investigated. This is more so because our knowledge of its level of availability could be of great help in resource planning.

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES

Not The Topic You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373

+233 55 397 8005


HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT ON ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES INSTANTLY

  • Click on the Download Button above.
  • Select any option to get the complete project immediately.
  • Chat with Our Instant Help Desk on +234 813 292 6373 for further assistance.
  • All projects on our website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Adam Alhassan Yakubu
UDS
Excellent work and delivery , I promise to share my testimonies everyone in need of this kind of work. You're the best
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Oluchi From Michael Opara University
If you are a student and you have not used iprojectmaster materials, you are missing big time! iprojectmaster is the BEST
Excellent
Peace From Unilag
I cried not knowing how to go about my project but the day i searched online and saw iprojectmaster, i called and got my full project in less than 15minutes, i was shocked!
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do I get this complete project on ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES?

Simply click on the Download button above and follow the procedure stated.

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can I get this complete project on ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES?

Within 15 minutes if you want this exact project topic without adjustment

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

What if I want to change the case study for ASSESSMENT OF RADON-222 IN SOME SELECTED WATER SOURCES, What do i do?

Chat with Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How will I get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 813 292 6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 813 292 6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!