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EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM PLANT

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 64  |  1543 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PERFUME FROM PLANT

 

ABSTRACT

Perfume extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Heat, chemical solvents, or exposure to oxygen in the extraction process denature the aromatic compounds, either changing their odour, character or rendering them odourless. In this work three methods, solvent extraction, hydro distillation and enfleurage methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass. Solvent extraction method yielded 2.08%, enfluerage method yielded 1.96% and hydro distillation methods yielded 0.95% essential oil respectively. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this conform the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Perfume is a fragrant liquid made from an extract that has been distilled in alcohol and water. Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people.

Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fume," or "smoke." Many ancient perfumes were made by extracting natural oils from plants through pressing and steaming. The oil was then burned to scent the air. Today, most perfume is used to scent bar soaps. Some products are even perfumed with industrial odorants to mask unpleasant smells or to appear "unscented." While fragrant liquids used for the body are often considered perfume, true perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol.

A perfume is composed of three notes. The base note is what a fragrance will smell like after it has dried. The smell that develops after the perfume has mixed with unique body chemistry is referred to as the middle note. And the top note is the first smell experienced in an aroma. Each perfumery has a preferred perfume manufacturing process, but there are some basic steps. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. The top note consists of small light molecules that evaporate quickly. The middle note forms the heart of main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes.

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