Select Currency
Translate this page

MODIFICATION OF SURFACE, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 73  |  1411 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

MODIFICATION OF SURFACE, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR WATER PURIFICATION

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 ORIGIN AND NATURE OF ACTIVATED CARBON

Carbon is the fifteenth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium and oxygen. Scientists, industries, and consumers use different forms of carbon and carbon containing compounds in many ways such as activated carbon or carbon in its active form which can be used to purify water, among others. Activated carbon is a form of carbon that has been produced to make it extremely porous and thus have a very large surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. It can be defined as a microcrystalline non-graphitic amorphous form of carbon which has been processed to develop a high internal porosity due to its network of inter-connecting pores.

The history of activated carbon is dated since the fifteenth century, during the time of Columbus when sailors used to blacken the inside of wooden water barrels with fire, since they observed that the water would stay fresh much longer. It is likely that people at that time proceeded by intuition only without having any insight into the mechanism of the effect. The mechanism was recognized beginning from the eighteenth century. In 1862, Lipscombe prepared a carbon material for purifying portable water. This development paved the way for the commercial application of activated carbon first for portable water and then in waste water sector.

1.2 METHODS OF MANUFACTURE OF ACTIVATED CARBON

The methods employed in the industrial manufacture of activated carbons are numerous but consist of three main methods namely; Chemical activation, Steam activation and thermal processing techniques. The raw materials or precursors used in the manufacture of activated carbon are as follows; Softwood, coconut shell, lignite, hardwood, grain and agro products, bituminous coal, anthracite, etc.

Chemical activation is generally used for the production of activated carbon from sawdust, wood or peat and uses chemicals for activation. Chemical activation technique involves mixing an inorganic chemical compound with the carbonaceous raw materials and the most widely used activating agents are Phosphoric acid and Zinc Chloride. Steam activation technique is generally used for coal-based, coconut shell and grain-based activated carbons and uses gases, vapors or a mixture of both for its activation.

Thermal processing technique is a separation process that removes unwanted materials from the carbonaceous precursor used under varying heat applications. This technique is at a lower cost compared to the two techniques above and meets all environmental standards, while others need expensive solutions to achieve the same results.

1.3  NEED FOR PRESENT INVESTIGATION

The need for present investigation of this material cannot be over emphasized. This is as a result of the pressing need for treatment of waste water emanating from domestic and industrial concerns. Activated carbon plays an important role in the purification of fluids (water), including vegetable oils used in domestic cooking and as a precursor in industrial manufacture of food products. The slow pace of technological development in the country has resulted to the expenditure of the nation’s resources on importation of activated carbons to meet the demand for local chemical and process industries, as well as the demand for municipal and industrial water treatment plants.

Rapid industrialization, together with the increase in modern methods of agriculture and the increase in population, has contributed to the pollution of the ecosystem. Most of the pollutants are toxic to living organisms. It is therefore imperative that waste water has to be treated to remove the toxic materials before disposal to the environment. Most methods of treating water have some inherent shortfalls. Activated carbon treatment was therefore developed because of its effectiveness in pollutants removal, especially in water purification.

1.4 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The primary objectives and scope of the present investigation include the following:

i. Acquisition of the different types of activated carbons available to the nation’s chemical industry.

ii. Modification of the surface physical and chemical properties of the carbon material, for their use in liquid phase applications.

iii. Determination of the physical properties of the as-received and modified activated carbon materials.

iv. Testing the adsorption capacity of the carbon materials in adsorption processes.

v. Evaluation of the fractional surface coverage for each carbon material.

vi. Proposal of a scheme for the optimal modification of activated carbon material for optimal application in liquid phase adsorption.

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause Iā€™ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!