Select Currency
Translate this page

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON MORINGA OLEIFERA AND AZADRICHTA INDICA LEAVES

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 78  |  1065 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS ON MORINGA OLEIFERA AND AZADRICHTA INDICA LEAVES

 

ABSTRACT

Studies were conducted to determine the phytochemicasl present in moringa olrifera and Azadrichta indica leaves. Leaves for this work were washed, room dried ground to powder. The ground leave for both sample were soaked in four different solvent; Ethanol, n-Hexane, Ethyl acetate and water for 24 hours. After the contact elapsed the solvent were filtered to recover the extract. Qualitative analysis was carried out on the extract; the result showed moringa oliefera to contain saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycoside. Azadrichta indica contains; saponin, flavonoid, tannin, Alkaloid, steroid and glycoside. Quantitative anaylsis were jalso carried on the extract and the result showed moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica to contain in percentage flavonoid (21.8 : 23.80), Alkaloids (5.00 : 8.20), saponin ( 0.70 : 1.10 ), phenol ( 0.76 : 1.49 ), Tannin ( 0.08 : 0.57 ) and Glycoside ( 0.005 : 0.0062 ) respectively for moringa oliefera and Azadrichta indica. In the qualitative analysis water was the best solvent for extraction and quantitative analysis; flavonoid, alkaloid, tannin, saponin, phenol and glycoside have higher percentage in Azadrichta indica than moringa oleifera.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

From time immemorial, man depended on plants as medicine. From a historical perspective, it is evident that the fascination for plants is as old as mankind itself. The plant kingdom represent a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes and could serve as lead for the development of novel agents having good efficacy in various pathological disorders in the coming years.Plants are the richest source of drugs for traditional medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals food supplements, folk medicine, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Hammer et al., 1999). The use of plant product as medicines could be traced as far back as the beginning of human civilization. The earliest mentioned medicinal used plant in Hindu culture is found in “Rigveda”, which is said to have been written between 4500-1600 B.C. and is supposed to be the oldest repository human knowledge. The active principle isolated, have provided leads in the development of several life saving drugs, which are in use today (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 2002).

The isolated active compounds of the plants are secondary metabolites chemical compound that occur naturally in plant with no nutritional value to human life. These active compounds are generally called phytochemical. These phytochemicals play protective roles in plants, each chemical labeled phytochemical works in different ways, not all are the same for human, and not all come from the same plants. Some have shown more promise than others in fighting disease and illness in humans. There are some basic types of these active compounds that are found in different fruits and vegetables. We have some of them like antioxidants, they are present in onions and some other fruits and tea, they act as preventive measure for premature cell death and some forms of cancer and aging. Isoflavones or plant estrogen; they are found in soy and soy products; they are helpful in the year just before and after menopause. Capsaicin is found in hot pepper and it has been shown to significantly reduce prostate tumors in size, at least in mice. Taking capsaicin on a regular basis by eating spicy foods with hot peppers may prove an excellent preventative agent to prostate cancer and benign growth of prostate (Ahmedabad 382- 481). This experiment was carried out on moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica leaves.

Moringaoleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a small or medium-sized about 10 m high perennial softwood tree with timber of low quality pantropical specie plant that is known by such regional name as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nebeday, saijhan and sajan. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in the mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties (Akerele, 1993). Moringaoleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogenetic family, the moringaceae that is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan Bangladesh and Afghanistan, it also now naturalizes in West Africa and Nigeria as a whole.

Azadirachtaindicaon the other hand is a very useful traditional medicinal plant in the sub-continent and each part of the tree has some medicinal properties. The plant is native to Asia, but has now naturalized in West Africa and is widely cultivated in Nigeria as an ornamental as well as medicinal plant.

1.2 Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals which occur naturally in plants that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life. It is well-known that plant produces these chemicals to protect them but recent research demonstrates that they can also protect humans against diseases. There are more than thousand known phytochemicals. Some of the well-known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, isoflavonesin soy and flavanoids in fruits.Alkaloids (examples are Caffeine, Theobromine, Theophylline).Organosulfides (examples are Allicin,Glutathione, Indole-3-Carbinol, Isothiocyanates). Tannins, steroids, Glycosides etc.

1.2.1 Activity of phytochemicals

Antioxidant – Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Phytochemicals with antioxidant activity includes:allyl sulfides (onions, leeks, and garlic), carotenoids (fruits, carrots), flavonoids (fruits, vegetables), polyphenols (tea, grapes).

Hormonal action – Isoflavones, found in soy, imitate human estrogens and help to reduce menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis.Stimulation of enzymes – Indoles, which are found in cabbages, stimulate enzymes that make the estrogen less effective and thus couldreduce the risk for breast cancer. Other phytochemicals, which interfere with enzymes, are protease inhibitors (soy and beans), terpenes (citrus fruits and cherries). Interference with DNA replication – Saponins found in beans interfere with the replication of DNA cell, thereby preventing themultiplication of cancer cells. Capsaicin, found in hot peppers, protects DNA from carcinogens.

Physical action – Some phytochemicals bind physically to cell walls thereby preventing the adhesion of pathogens to human cell walls. Proanthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-adhesion properties of cranberry. Consumption of cranberries will reduce the risk of urinary tract infections and will improve dental health.

Phytochemicals are naturally present in many foods but it is expected that through bioengineering new plants will be developed, which will ontain higher levels. This would make it easier to incorporate enough phytochemicals with our food.

1.3  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Moringaoleifera and Azadirachtaindica are plants(leave) are claimed to have a lot of economic value such as medicinal, nutritional and pesticidal values. These claims have not been clearly justified.This research and experiment is therefore centered on investigating, analyzing and justifying the claims made on these plants (leave). And also to know the chemical composition responsible for the Medicinal value of these plant (leave).

1.4  AIM/OBJECTIVE OF PHYTOCHEMICAL

i. Phytochemical anaylsis on the Moringaoleiferaand Azadiractaindica. In the other words, identify, isolate and quantify each phytochemical present in the plant material.

ii. To describe clearly the unit operation (Extraction process) used on these plant.

1.5  SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

To justify the claims made on these plants for its medicinal and economic values like moringaoleifera is responsible for curing malaria, reducing high blood pressure and reduces blood sugar and Azadirachtaindica is responsible curing fever,malaria, bacteria and fungi disease.

1.6   SCOPE OF STUDY

The phytochemical analysis will be carried out only on the leaves of the plant under study.

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause Iā€™ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!