Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  527 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





This projects is aimed at knowing the process and quality factor in Laundary and Toilet Soap Projection.  Various factors affected the quality of the soap produced.  These include the method used in production, types and nature of oils used, the percentage of the additives in the soap and the ratio at which oils are mixed to react with alkali. The work was carried out using one type of oil, namely, palm kernel oil for production of laundary soap and a blend oil in the ration of 95:5 (PKO  to soya bean oil) for production of Toilet Soap respectively.  The oil was firstly subjected to various analytical tests. Using both blended and unblended oil for production of Toilet and laundary soap in the ration of 2:1 of oil to alkali, soaps were produced which varied in quality as a result of either the ratio of mixing, the nature of oil or by both.  Additives like sodium silicate, green pigment, pink pigment, citrolene perfume were added to improve the soaps quality and appearance. The omo soap samples produced; laundry and toilet soap have some distinguishable properties and these properties were found to be dependent on the different properties of the oils employed. 





Soap is a class of products that serves for cleaning of human, property and surrounding.  Hence, soap in its various forms, is in high demand in all society.  For generations its use has increased until its manufacture has become an industry essential to the comfort and health of civilized man.  In fact, modern civilization may be gauged by the per capital consumption of soap and detergents. Soap a classical example of detergent (cleaning agent) – differs from detergent in processes of manufacture and chemical composition.  These result in differences in action. Soap depends for its washing action on the fact that its molecules possess one ionic (polar, water – attracting or hydrophilic)  end and one covalent (non-polar, water repelling or hydrophobic) end which attracts oils and greases.  Thus, soap molecules can make water and oils come into an emulsion which can be washed away.  This is the modern concepts of surface active agents or surfactants; soap, detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents and penetrants.

Soap is not, however, satisfactory, as it forms a scum (precipitate of insoluble calcium and magnesium salts) in hard and acidic waters.  Synthetic detergents, on the other hand, do not form a scum in hard or acidic water as their calcium and magnesium salts are solute, are usually more soluble in water than soap is; enable water to spread and penetrate more fully over or through an article being cleaned and can generally be used equally well under alkaline or acidic conditions. Soaps are essentially the sodium or potassium salts of various fatty acids, while detergents are very complex mixtures of many substances, all chosen to impart a particular action in cleaning.  The polar end of the detergent molecule consists of sulphonic acid ( - SO3H) or hydrogen sulphate (-OSO3H) group present in the form of its sodium salt to increase solubility.  The non-polar end of the detergent molecule is a long alkyl – substituted benzene chain.  Extensively branched chains are not biochemically degradable and such detergents cause pollution in rivers and sea wage waters.

Soap also contains additives for some desired qualities.  These include salt, soda ash, sodium silicate, sodium bicarbonate, perfume, colour, citric acid, borax, magnesium sulphate, and trisodium phosphate. A combination of inexpensive builders, e.g. soda ash with more effective (and expensive) tetrasoium pyrophosphate or sodium triphasphate, is sometimes superior to the phasphate used alone. Although the use of soap has declined since World War II, majority of the world’s toilet tablets are still soap, and in the developing countries hard soap bars are still the most important fabric washing products. Also, a substantial proportion of the fabric – washing powder used in the United Kingdom is soap powder.  Other uses of soaps are in textile finishing, emulsion polymerization, cosmetics and polishes.

Basically, all soap is made by saponification, that is the hydrolysis of naturally occurring fats and oil by sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide (caustic potash).  Various additives have been   used to impart some specific characteristics to the products. The qualities and properties affecting soap and also the processing (which forms the basis of this project) depend on factors such as the nature and type of oil used, the type of alkali used and also on the proportion of mixture of both major raw materials.


Soap can be produced with a variety of raw materials, using several processes and thus obtaining varying qualities.  However, from the literature survey, it was found that various types of oils differed, consequently, their soap products different.

In this work, soap is to be produced using palm oil and palm kernel oil respectively.  The objective is to compare the qualities of the soaps made from these oils and also the processing involved for laundry and toilet soap production.

The work entails working out the soap formulas and using the formulations to produce soap.  The two soaps so produced will then be tested analytically to determine their various physical and chemical properties.

From the results obtained from the various analytical test, distinguished process qualities of the two soap will then be deduced.

Finally, recommendation will be made to aid further research on the project.


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ šŸŒŸ
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause Iā€™ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!